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    Name: Paul DeBlassie III
    Book Title: The Unholy
    Genre: Paranormal Thriller
    Publisher: Sunstone Press

    About The Unholy
     "A young curandera, a medicine woman, intent on uncovering the secrets of her past is forced into a life-and-death battle against an evil Archbishop. Set in the mystic land of Aztlan, the Unholy is a novel of destiny as healer and slayer. native lore of dreams and visions, shape changing, and natural magic work to spin a neo-gothic web in which sadness and mystery lure the unsuspecting into a twilight realm of discovery and decision." 

    Purchase at Amazon

    Purchase a Signed Copy at Author’s Website

    Connect on Facebook

    Follow on Twitter

    Guest Post by Paul DeBlassie III

    One of the most terrifying things about being a writer is that if I’m going to write a true story that resonates with my audience I have to live it out. It has to have been a part of my life. Since I write thrillers and  dark fantasy, that means that dark forces that have been at play in my life or are presently in the works can be quite overwhelming. This is not a hands off enterprise. Writing cuts to the core of my life and life experience, relationships, profession, dream, and nightmares. If I could only research stuff from a distance and then write in a compelling way about that, that would be one thing; but as it is I have to live this out. The story is a living breathing thing within my life before it hits the page, and then once its on the page, and then on from there. 

    The Unholy is about terrifying religious encounters. This is something that I was raised with, fought my own battles about, treated people for clinically, and finally found that I was smack dab in the middle of writing a story that could not be stopped. It had to come out. Frightening, very frightening to live this close to one’s work. There were times that it effected my family, and I had to wonder whether I should withdraw; but we all talked and I had their support. I have it now. The arms of creativity stretch long and influence oneself and others who are in the emotional and psychic vortex of one’s existence. The energy, the psychological amalgam, of this is so intense and persuasive that nothing short of challenging and amazing can be said to even faintly describe it.

    Author Paul DeBlassie III
    PAUL DeBLASSIE III, PhD, is a psychologist and writer living in his native New Mexico. A member of the Depth Psychology Alliance, the Transpersonal Psychology Association, and the International Association for Relational Psychoanalysis and Psychotherapy, he has for over thirty years treated survivors of the dark side of religion. 


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    About Chatur

    CHATUR is a hilarious and entertaining picture book written in Hindi (also with Hindi phonetics) for kids.
    CHATUR is a wise laundry man. MAND is a loyal, reliable, albeit sluggish, partner in Chatur’s trade. He is a lazy donkey whose mantra is “Na Na Na hum to aaram karenge!”

    Chatur’s ambition and Mand’s attitude doesn’t blend well. So Chatur comes up with a wise plan to reverse his fortune. He brings ATAL the elephant to do Mand’s job.
    The plan starts out well and it did reverse his fortune substantially, but How?

    Read Chatur(Hindi) a comical and fun read for kids. It is sure to tickle your funny bones. Bright illustrations are sure to engage readers. Chatur has a humorous theme with a subtle message and young readers not only have a laugh, but towards the end connect with each character and sympathize with them.
    The book is written in Hindi script and also in Hindi phonetics to make it easy for everyone to read.

    Book Information:

    Title of Book: Chatur (Hindi)

    Link to photo of book cover (an attachment is fine):

    ISBN:  978-0-99-03178-0-7

    Genre: Children’s Picture Book

    Publisher: Kommuru Books

    Publication Date: September 2014

    # of Pages: 28

    Title is available at Amazon

    Pick up your copy at Barnes & Noble

    Book Excerpt

    Yeh kahani hai Chatur dhobhi aur mand gadha ki. Aalsi Mand ka naara hai "NaNa hum to aaram karenge" aur Chatur ki nazar sirf taraki par hai. Jab Mand ka tevar chatur ko khatakne laga, to usne dikhai apni chaturai. Kya chatur ko apni chaturai mehnga padega?

    This is a story about Chatur, the Dhobhi and Mand the donkey. Chatur is smart and progressive by nature and his Lazy donkey Mand's answer to any request was "No No No, I gotta take it easy". Chatur realized that his success is limited by Mand's attitude, So Chatur thought of a smart idea, will it work or will it hit him back?

    About Sujata & Subhash Kommuru
    Subhash and Sujata hail from India. They migrated to the United States along with their memories of childhood and youth. Now that they are parents, just like every immigrant they crave to introduce their child to the culture and values of their upbringing. Yet it is challenging to teach something while you are in the midst of adjusting to a different culture yourself. Subhash and Sujata both work in different disciplines and have different styles and backgrounds, but it is the upbringing of their son that brings them on the same page. That exact place where they meet is captured and reflected in their stories, where Subhash can express in words, and Sujata can illustrate them beautifully. Where he puts it in black and white, she adds color to it. You get the idea! These stories are their attempt to share a glimpse of their childhood days with their son. He is their inspiration to write short stories that have meaning to them and provide teaching in some shape or form.
    Our Goal
    Our goal is to introduce kids to Indian culture one story at a time and along the way have some fun. While stories are primarily written in Hindi they are tastefully being narrated in English as well, while maintaing the essence and moral.
    Our Promise
    Our promise is to write sensible stories with a moral to them.

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    The Book of Zev Book Tour
    Can a New York City cab driver and a beautiful private chef prevent a fanatical Middle Eastern dignitary from blowing up the United Nations and launching a nuclear attack on Israel in less time than it took God to create the world?

    “Sometimes a woman’s gotta do what a woman’s gotta do. A Sharp psychological thriller of high intellect about a woman making some hard choices for the right reasons to stop an international catastrophe.”
    --Omar Tyree, New York Times Bestselling author of The Traveler: Welcome to Dubai


    The Book of Zev Synopsis 

    The Book of Zev is a black-comedy thriller that tells the story of two gentle people who change the course of history. Zev Bronfman, a strapping 32-year old-virgin, angry atheist, refugee from a religious Jewish life, and former engineer for the U.S. Patent Office in Alexandria, Virginia, drives a cab and sleeps around in New York City. After a bitter divorce, Sarah Hirshbaum, a beautiful, redheaded, depressed, God-hating kosher chef, seesaws between yoga and too much red wine. Independently, the two consult the same psychic who inadvertently sends Sarah Zev’s session tape. When Sarah contacts Zev to pick up the recording, a series of events forces them to connect with a powerful terrorist in order to thwart his plans to destroy the UN and Israel.

    Click here to read an Excerpt of The Book of Zev  

    Pre-order from Amazon
    About the Book
    ·  Paperback: 298 pages
    ·  Publisher: Koehler Books (December 1, 2014)
    ·  Language: English
    ·  ISBN-10: 1940192781
    ·  ISBN-13: 978-1940192789
    ·  Product Dimensions: 9 x 6 x 0.5 inches 

    About Marilyn Horowitz 

    Author Marilyn Horowitz  
    Marilyn Ida Horowitz is a producer, writing coach, and award-winning professor of screenwriting at New York University. From her books on her trademarked writing system—now standard reading at NYU—to her appearances at Screenwriters World and The Great American Screenwriting Conference & PitchFest, Marilyn has guided the careers of literally hundreds of writers. She is currently featured in the Now Write! Screenwriting Anthology (Tarcher/Penguin) and in the upcoming The Expert Success Solution (Morgan James). Her production credits include And Then Came Love (2007), starring Vanessa Williams.

    Follow Marilyn at her website, 


    Connect with Marilyn on Facebook

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    About the Book 

    The Magic of Friendship Book Tour
    BABBAR is a fierce and mean tiger who cannot tolerate anyone, but he is lonely and sad. HASMUKH is a funny donkey but gets scared of everyone. When the Magic of friendship touches them see how it transforms not only their characters but also transforms the whole environment around them.
    The Magic of friendship is a hilarious, action packed entertaining story. There are scary moments, celebration and comical moments. While the core focus of the story is about friendship it has elements of Father son bonding and family values as well. 

    Book gives plenty of opportunity for parents to entertain kids with their own version of animal noises. And bright and interactive illustrations is sure to leave a mark on eyes.

    This is a story about change -- a transformation that comes with the magic of friendship. Personality may not change, but nature can surely change. This story will show the value of friendship and how that can change a person, particularly, one who is lonely and never really had the gift of laughter. 

    Book Excerpt 

    A flock of migrating geese stumble upon Tadoba, the land of the fierce tiger Babbar who does not tolerate anyone in his area. Will Babbar show any mercy? Can he change? Will the geese make it to safety? 

    Title is available at Amazon
    Pick up your copy at Barnes & Noble
    Title of Book: The Magic of Friendship
    ISBN:  9-7-80-99031781-4
    Genre: Children's Picture Book
    Publisher: Kommuru Books
    Publication Date: September 2014
    # of Pages: 40

    Guest Post 

    Life in the First Draft - In one word writing ‘The Magic of Friendship’ was cool! Right from get go this story I knew it deep inside is going to be a hit. One afternoon my son went to sleep and I haven’t written a story for him for a long time. He has been asking for a new story for a while by then. So during afternoon I sat back and all I had in my mind was a tiger and a donkey as characters. I focused on these two animals and was thinking they are so much opposite but what can they possibly teach other. What can happen when you bring them in front of each other? Well in real life you obviously know what would happen Jbut when you think of such opposite figures and what can they do for a meaningful story it is amazing read. 

    When writing the story I did not have ‘magic’ in mind in fact there is no magician in the book. Magic is true to this book not only on how it came together in the form that it is and also its about how two characters change each other’s lives without actually changing themselves. When you think of it, it’s a learning lesson not just for kids but for everyone. You need not change you can be exactly opposite of the other and yet see a transformation. 

    Core of the story never really changed after that afternoon when I first wrote ‘The Magic of Friendship’. But before it took shape of a book, I added quite a few characters which play supporting role in this book. Initially the book was just focused on Babbar the tiger and Hasmukh the donkey and story was in first person tone. But then I introduced the geese as assisting characters and changed tone of the story to be one of third person. And these assisting characters actually did more than just filling gaps in story they actually move story in a different pace, they are curtain opener and also close the story and they actually bring family values and a multi-generational relationship on focus. 

    I totally loved writing this book and I guarantee that anyone reading ‘The Magic of friendship’, old or young, men or women, boy or girl, will love it and will be entertained throughout. 

    About Sujata & Subhash Kommuru

    Subhash and Sujata hail from India. They migrated to the United States along with their memories of childhood and youth. Now that they are parents, just like every immigrant they crave to introduce their child to the culture and values of their upbringing. Yet it is challenging to teach something while you are in the midst of adjusting to a different culture yourself. Subhash and Sujata both work in different disciplines and have different styles and backgrounds, but it is the upbringing of their son that brings them on the same page. That exact place where they meet is captured and reflected in their stories, where Subhash can express in words, and Sujata can illustrate them beautifully. Where he puts it in black and white, she adds color to it. You get the idea! These stories are their attempt to share a glimpse of their childhood days with their son. He is their inspiration to write short stories that have meaning to them and provide teaching in some shape or form.

    Our Goal
    Our goal is to introduce kids to Indian culture one story at a time and along the way have some fun. While stories are primarily written in Hindi they are tastefully being narrated in English as well, while maintaining the essence and moral.

    Our Promise
    Our promise is to always write sensible story with some moral to them.

    Connect on Facebook
    Join Chatur on Twitter  @kommurubooks

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     from a book to a film photography (movie ;))

    An airborne Boeing 747 is headed to London when, without any warning, passengers mysteriously disappear from their seats. Terror and chaos slowly spread not only through the plane but also worldwide as unusual events continue to unfold. For those who have been left behind, the apocalypse has just begun.
    A repackage of the New York Times best-selling novel Left Behind.

    directed by Vic Sarin
    Produced by Joe Goodman
    Paul Lalonde
    Peter Lalonde
    Ralph Winter
    Written by Reverend Tim LaHaye
    Jerry B. Jenkins
    Alan B. McElroy
    Paul Lalonde
    Joe Goodman
    Starring Kirk Cameron
    Brad Johnson
    Gordon Currie
    Janaya Stephens
    Clarence Gilyard, Jr.
    Chelsea Noble
    Colin Fox
    Music by James Covell
    Cinematography George Tirl
    Edited by Michael Pacek
    Namesake Entertainment
    Distributed by Cloud Ten Pictures
    Release dates
    • October 31, 2000 (video)
    • February 2, 2001 (theatrical)
    Running time 96 minutes
    Country Canada
    United States
    Language English
    Budget $4 million
    Box office $4,224,065

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    Adelita's Secret Book Tour

    Today, we're shining the book spotlight on a young adult fantasy novel, Adelita’s Secret thanks to Rebecca's Writing Services. Christopher Cloud is an award winning novelist with his collection of young adult novels.  

    About Adelita’s Secret 
    Lost in a superficial world of materialism and social status—and ashamed of her Latino heritage—seventeen-year-old Adelita Noé is loved by two men, two men separated by a hundred years and vastly different stations in life. One man owns little more than the shirt on his back. The other, a poet at heart, is heir to a vast fortune. Their love for Adelita serves as the backdrop for the Latino girl’s quest to better understand herself and her Mexican roots.

    Read Chapter 1 – 4 on Amazon

    Title: Adelita’s Secret
    Author: Christopher Cloud
    Genre: young adult fantasy romance
    Title is available at Amazon kindle or paperback
    Pick up your copy at Barnes & Noble

    Q: Christopher, Do you have any advice for new writers/authors?
    There’s an old adage in the writing business that insists writers should write what they know. Twenty-years ago that was true, but not today. The availability of the Internet affords writers the luxury of writing in-depth on any subject. Your story may require a great deal of research, but if you’re willing to invest the time, the Internet allows a writer to qualify himself/herself as an expert on any subject. The Internet has eliminated those long, exhausting trips to the library, and outshines even the Ancient Library of Alexandria.

    Q: What are your writing tips for others?
    Don’t be afraid, at first, to write poorly. All writers, from Stephen King to Mark Twain, have written stories they’re not particularly proud of.  These stories are usually shoved to the back burner awaiting a serious rewrite. Most never see the light of day. I look back over stories I wrote in college and cringe, they are so poorly written. But that’s how writers improve. There can be no success without a few failures. We cannot all be a Truman Capote, who is said never to have received a rejection letter. 

    Q: Tell us a little about your next book or writing project.         
    At the moment, I’m between novels. I have established a few criteria for all of my novels, and my next is no exception. The story must be either middle-grade or young adult and have some social relevance. I've boiled my story ideas down to three candidates.

    About Christopher Cloud
    Author Christopher Cloud  
    Award winning author Christopher Cloud began writing fiction full time after a long career in journalism and public relations. He writes middle-grade and young adult novels..Cloud graduated from the University of Missouri in 1967 with a degree in journalism. He has worked as a reporter, editor, and columnist at newspapers in Texas, California, and Missouri. He was employed by a Fortune 100 company as a public relations executive, and later operated his own public relations agency. Cloud attended high school in Japan, and lives in Joplin, Missouri. His website Is:

    Visit Christopher Cloud’s website

    Visit Cloud’s blog

    More books by Christopher Cloud

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    About the author:
    Preeti Shenoy is an author and artist. She believes life is the biggest teacher. She is an avid blogger, whose poetry has also been published. This book is her second published work.
    My thoughts on the book:
    So we have the protagonist, Ankita. She’s a 20 something girl who seems to have issues from the past that haunts her present. In the prologue, we start with her sitting on a chair outside the doctor’s office, mulling over how they’ve come a long way to get her treated. Now that start is perfect. It’s that conflict that pushes the story toward an ending, and makes the reader wonder why she’s at a doctor’s office in the first place. But then, in the next paragraph, it appears as if the protagonist is still traveling to the doctor’s office. And we’re taken through a drive. Major confusion here and that doesn’t do the story good.
    The story begins as a flashback. We’re shown letters that Ankita sends to Vaibhav and Vaibhav’s reply. As the story moves, we come to know that Ankita’s parents are very old-school (for the lack of a better term) and don’t approve of her being with other guys, even if in a group, or allow her friends who are boys to call her at home. So they begin to sneak around, doing what they can to stay in touch. Guess love is like that.
    The story moves to Ankita’s life at college. This part of the story goes well. It’s kind of like settling in, finding new friends, etc.She gets elected into the school’s office bearers group. The campaign part is fun too. The story goes smoothly till the second guy comes into the picture. Abhi, the guy who she meets at an inter-collegiate event, begins to woo her. Now, good for her part that she tries to tell Abhi about Vaibhav and stuff, but if she is really in love, then it feels really strange that she’d start feeling for Abhi so suddenly. Especially with her talking to Vaibhav and pretending all is well all along. Fast forward and Abhi proposes that Ankita stay in the same city and college so their relationship continues, but Ankita refuses because her parents would not understand, and more so because she’s got into the best college in another city. She even refuses to guarantee that she’ll stay in touch with him because she felt it silly. (If she could stay in touch with, and sneak calls with Vaibhav earlier, this casual brush off for someone who was right near to her and who she “loved” felt very out of character.) The events that follow leave a big mark on her, and she leaves the city on a sad note.
    From this point, and her new college life for her Masters degree, the turnaround in her character is quite stunning. She becomes very, maybe even too competitive, and starts seeking perfection. She has affections for one of her new classmates, and kisses him. When her academics seem to be going well, her parents find her “love letters” and turn on her. In front of her, they burn the letters. From here, her mind cracks and she begins to lose it. The problems arise and she leaves going to college. Her parents take her to psychiatrists to try and solve her problem, even trying to force her to return to college. She’s taken to NMHI where she finds someone who’s willing to listen to her, understand her problems and help her get past them. And we move to the ending which culminates it all.
    What I liked in the story is the simple language and narration. It’s a quick read if you have some time on your hands. It’s inspiring to the extent that it tells you problems are temporary and you can get past them if you believe. Yes, the story does have elements of a love story, but it isn’t completely one.
    What I didn’t like in the story is that you are left much confused. The prologue is conflicting, and the characters very shallow. It’s difficult to think that when your daughter is excelling in the field she’s chosen, any parent would react in that cut-throat way to finding a love letter that HAS a date and is known that it’s long back and target their daughter’s mind health, no matter how strict they are. You don’t get to know why Ankita begins to lose her mind suddenly, if it’s one thing or a combination of different things. The title is only justified with an epilogue that happens fifteen years later. You start to think the plot somewhat quarter or half way into it, so knowing what might happen leaves you disappointed, and also makes our feeling of sadness or sympathy with the protagonist less.
    Overall, I think this is a one-time read. I can’t for the life of me figure out why the book is as popular as it is. I don’t think it is a bad book, but it’s confusing why it is titled so. It’s a really nice message, I agree, but the story doesn’t bring it out like it needs to.

    Rated 5/10
    Rated 5/10
    Book details:
    Title: Life Is What You Make It
    Author: Preeti Shenoy
    ISBN: 9789380349305
    Genre: Romance
    Publishers: Srishti Publishers
    Price: Rs. 100

    Books T-V

    ~ Titles beginning with T ~

    ~ Titles beginning with U ~

    ~ Titles beginning with V ~

    Books W-Z

    ~ Titles beginning with W ~
     a online friend, a skillfull poet, well done bookreview, leo

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    By A.J. on March 19, 2003
    Format: Mass Market Paperback

    As one of the great astronomer-writers of the Twentieth Century, Carl Sagan was extraordinarily communicative with the non-scientific public, able and willing to take the time and trouble to break down the mysteries of the universe into comprehensible fragments. The purpose of this book, which can be considered a companion to the acclaimed television series, is to explain what we know about the universe from a cosmological perspective and why we need to know more about it.
    Physicists often talk of the unity of the branches of physics: the interrelation and application of mechanics, thermodynamics, electricity and magnetism, and optics to the motion of everything from galaxies to subatomic particles. Similarly, Sagan's major theme is the unity of cosmology with the natural and physical sciences that define what we know about the Earth. Does the stifling, carbon dioxide-choked atmosphere of Venus imply anything about the greenhouse effect on Earth? Was a nearby cosmic explosion called a supernova indirectly responsible for the disappearance of the dinosaurs? What would be the biological consequences for the survivors of a global nuclear war? The answers to these questions are vital to the continuation of life as we know it.
    Sagan also identifies cosmology with its own history. He lavishes reverent detail on the ancient Greek and Alexandrian study of the stars and planetary motions, the pioneering work by the Renaissance scientists Brahe, Kepler, Copernicus, Huygens, and others, and the men who revolutionized science with the formulation of laws of motion, Newton and Einstein.
    The scope of "Cosmos" is tremendous, from the farthest expanses of the universe containing a hundred billion galaxies in addition to our own Milky Way, at the end of a spiraling arm of which our solar system is located; down to the lone electron circling the nucleus of a hydrogen atom, the most plentiful single entity in the cosmos and the source of everything we know, love, and are. In between there is discussion of the unmanned spacecraft expeditions to investigate "our" planets: Mars with its boulder-strewn, desert-like terrain; the gaseous giant Jupiter; Io, a Jovian moon of incredible redness, spotted with volcanic orifices and resembling an unappealing sauce-covered meatball; Saturn with its ice rings. Would these worlds contain life? Using what we know about the evolution of life on Earth, Sagan hypothesizes how different types of lifeforms might develop on worlds with different environments.
    Even a casual interest in cosmology requires a fascination with astronomical distances and unthinkably long spans of time in which a human lifetime is but a blink of an eye. However, Sagan seems to write also for those who would rather relate cosmic arcana to familiar terms, and in this sense he is a grand entertainer: A thought experiment that provides a simple but fanciful illustration of the concept of black holes uses the tea party scene in "Alice in Wonderland" as a setting. "Cosmos" neither complicates unnecessarily nor insults your intelligence; very few "popular" science books will capture your imagination so well.

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    The Unholy Book Tour   

    About The Unholy
     "A young curandera, a medicine woman, intent on uncovering the secrets of her past is forced into a life-and-death battle against an evil Archbishop. Set in the mystic land of Aztlan, the Unholy is a novel of destiny as healer and slayer. native lore of dreams and visions, shape changing, and natural magic work to spin a neo-gothic web in which sadness and mystery lure the unsuspecting into a twilight realm of discovery and decision." 

    Guest Post by Paul DeBlassie 

    The stronger the character in terms of the capacity for both love and rage the more compelling they are and it is in this that the true character is birthed. Love and rage are in essence the nests in which the characters are cared for and nourished and then allowed to fly free. 

    I find that I must dip into my own capacity for primal feelings of love and rage in order to discover that aspect of myself that is like the character, has been like or felt like the character feels in the situation. 

    It’s critical to always allow this to move the story forward and not get stuck by over thinking the character, to just hit and go into the emotional life of the character and let the character then tell me what he or she wants to express. The rage in particular can be horrifying because of our human capacity to inflict injury on others or society. 

    To express this on the page leaves me feeling vulnerable yet also true to myself within this dimension of storytelling. It’s mind boggling for me to experience the rage of the character and what the character like Archbishop William Anarch in The Unholy wants to do and does to innocent human beings. 

    Claire Sanchez, the medicine woman, on the other hand needs to find rage, a healthy aggression, that has gone awry in Anarch, and only by doing this, if she can, will she potentially be able to discover the strength to fight the powerful archbishop.   

    Book Excerpt from The Unholy
    As she ran forward, out of nowhere the two crows flew at her, scraping the air near her face with their sharp talons. Fists clenched, she struck out at one and grabbed at the other. They flew up, circled overhead, then dove, talons flaring. Unmoving, Claire placed her hands by her side and held their gaze. They fluttered above her head for a minute, then left. Claire turned and saw an eagle soaring—a healer’s spirit manifestation. Medicine women said it came only when needed, when danger lurked.

    Frantically tugging away bush, bramble, and cacti, she uncovered the mouth of the seventh cave and stepped in. She had the feeling somebody was watching.

    Her eyes adjusted and she made out the contour of something. Squinting, she stooped and touched what seemed to be a circle of stones and charred, cold logs. She stood up and pulled back. A bat flew at her. She waved it away.

    She stopped, waited for her breathing to slow, and, stepping sideways, touched the walls of the cave. They were damp and the stink of blood and guts was everywhere. Using the hard surfaces as a guide, her fingertips suddenly brushed through a hollow space roughly the size of a human body.

    Book Information
    Name: Paul DeBlassie III
    Book Title: The Unholy
    Genre: Paranormal Thriller
    Publisher: Sunstone Press


    About the Author
    Author Paul DeBlassie  
    PAUL DeBLASSIE III, PhD, is a psychologist and writer living in his native New Mexico. A member of the Depth Psychology Alliance, the Transpersonal Psychology Association, and the International Association for Relational Psychoanalysis and Psychotherapy, he has for over thirty years treated survivors of the dark side of religion. 

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    Life along the Illinois RiverHardcover– October 31, 2008

    Editorial Reviews


    "A work of love ... this is a book you'll continue to be drawn to, irresistibly."--IllinoisTimes 

    Book Description

    The Illinois River flows through the heart of Illinois, beginning in the northeast of the state at the confluence of the Kankakee River and the Des Plaines River in Will County and extending 270 miles to the southwest, where it joins the Mississippi River at Grafton in Jersey County. Many people depend on this river for their livelihoods, and many more are drawn to its waters as an escape for recreation, sport, and reflection.
    This collection of photographs offers intimate insight into the Illinois River, spanning its entire length and illustrating the river throughout all seasons. Evoking moods that are by turns meditative, practical, and quirkily playful, the ninety photographs in this volume compose a portrait of the Illinois River with a face that is transformed throughout every hour of the day. Photojournalist David Zalaznik captures the spirit of people at work and at play on the river, as well as the quiet beauty of the flora and fauna that make the river a natural retreat. Guiding the reader through the unique communities built along the river’s shores--from Ottawa and Morris to Peoria and Chillicothe, from Lacon and Bath to Kampsville and Grafton, as well as many others--the photographs convey the sense of spontaneity, discovery, and celebration felt by people who live near or visit this great gift of nature.
    Life along the Illinois River is a gracious portrait of a river that unites humanity and nature, and it offers a new vision of the Illinois River’s vitality and its role in our lives. The book also includes a short introduction by the photographer and a foreword by Illinois Lieutenant Governor Pat Quinn.

    More About the Author

    David Zalaznik
    Discover books, learn about writers, read author blogs, and more.

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    2014 Movie
    Selma is a 2014 American historical drama film directed by Ava DuVernay and written by Paul Webb. It is based on the 1965 Selma to Montgomery voting rights marches led by James Bevel, Hosea Williams, and Martin...
    • November 11, 2014
    • Historical drama
    • Ava DuVernay
    • 128 mins
    • $13,500,000
    • $20,000,000


    1. Related Places

      Produced by 

      Nik Bower ... executive producer
      Christian Colson ... producer
      Ava DuVernay ... executive producer
      Dede Gardner ... producer
      Paul Garnes ... executive producer
      Kiran Bhakta Joshi ... executive producer
      Jeremy Kleiner ... producer
      Cameron McCracken ... executive producer
      Diarmuid McKeown ... executive producer
      Nan Morales ... executive producer
      Brad Pitt ... executive producer
      Oprah Winfrey ... producer

      Cinematography by 

      Bradford Young

      Film Editing by 

      Spencer Averick

      Casting By 

      Aisha Coley

      Art Direction by 

      Kim Jennings

      Set Decoration by 

      Elizabeth Keenan

      Costume Design by 

      Ruth E. Carter

      Makeup Department 

      Louisa V. Anthony ... hair stylist
      Pierce Austin ... key hair stylist
      Andrea C. Brotherton ... third hair stylist
      Char Coats-Crump ... makeup artist
      Theresa A. Fleming ... background hair
      Melissa Forney ... hair department head
      Myke Michaels ... special makeup effects artist
      Seleena Miller ... makeup artist
      Judy Murdock ... key makeup artist
      Bill Myer ... special makeup effects artist
      Fawn Ortega ... makeup artist
      Travis Pates ... special makeup effects artist
      Beverly Jo Pryor ... makeup department head
      Kellie Robinson ... makeup artist
      Keitric Starks ... makeup artist

      Production Management 

      Paul Garnes ... unit production manager
      Cheryl Miller ... production supervisor
      Tim Pedegana ... post-production supervisor

      Second Unit Director or Assistant Director 

      Christopher Blackmore ... additional second assistant director
      Christy Busby ... second assistant director
      Myron Hoffert ... first assistant director
      Rebecca Rogers ... Additional 2nd AD
      Lisandra Soto ... additional assistant director
      David Waters ... second assistant director

      Art Department 

      Hunter Barcroft ... property assistant
      Sam Carter ... set dresser
      Marcus Cooley ... on-set dresser
      Scott Dougan ... assistant art director
      Christopher Ferris ... construction coordinator
      Brenda Findley ... art department coordinator
      Carol Francoso ... on set painter
      Erick Garibay ... assistant property master
      Nick Gjoka ... set dresser
      Charlie Guanci III ... armorer
      Julia Heymans ... assistant set decorator
      Erica Hohf ... art researcher
      April Hopkins ... assistant property master
      Lauri Lannan ... set decoration coordinator
      Joel Messamore ... props
      Robin L. Miller ... property master
      Rob Nagy ... art department assistant
      John J. Passanante ... key scenic painter
      Jessie Pellegrino ... set decoration coordinator
      Daniel F. Simmons ... set dresser
      Jason Sweers ... lead graphic designer
      Wendy Weaver ... set decorating buyer: LA

      Sound Department 

      Christopher Assells ... sound effects editor
      Bobbi Banks ... adr: editor
      Zane D. Bruce ... foley artist
      Willie D. Burton ... sound mixer
      Aaron 'Cujo' Cooley ... boom operator
      William R. Dean ... sound effects editor
      Jorge Del Valle ... sound utility
      Samuel Ejnes ... mix technician
      Paul Hackner ... sound effects editor
      Lauren Hadaway ... dialogue editor
      Shane Hayes ... adr mixer
      Greg Hedgepath ... supervising sound editor
      Andy Koyama ... sound re-recording mixer
      Kory Kruckenberg ... pro tools engineer
      Hank Martin ... sound utility
      Chris Navarro ... adr mixer
      Gretchen Thoma ... foley artist
      David A. Whittaker ... dialogue editor
      Antony Zeller ... foley mixer

      Special Effects by 

      Caius Man ... special effects coordinator
      Scott Willis ... special effects foreman (as Sparky Willis)

      Visual Effects by 

      Scott Anderson ... visual effects editor
      Bijay Awale ... senior roto artist
      Vishal Baikar ... lead visual effects artist
      Wayne Billheimer ... visual effects executive producer: ILM
      Pranav Bookare ... digital artist
      Justin Tatsuo Chan ... visual effects production coordinator: ILM
      Nikhil Chawale ... digital artist
      Patrick Clancey ... digital opticals
      Benjamin Conner ... compositor
      Unmesh Desai ... digital artist
      Jyoti Bhalchandra Deshpande ... visual effects production manager
      Ankit Dhanorkar ... digital artist
      Ganesh Durgade ... lead visual effects artist
      Gus Duron ... digital opticals editor
      Mathias Frodin ... digital compositor
      Nathan Grubbs ... digital compositor
      Chase Handley ... visual effects coordinator
      T.C. Harrison ... digital artist: Industrial Light & Magic
      Dipesh K.P. ... project lead
      Aman Khadgi ... roto artist
      Susan MacLeod ... visual effects supervisor
      Gyanendra Maharjan ... roto artist
      Rajeev Maharjan ... roto artist
      Roshan Maharjan ... roto artist
      Suroj Maharjan ... roto artist
      Ajoo Manandhar ... roto artist
      Shira Mandel ... digital compositor
      Kumar Mohan ... digital artist
      Amitav Nakarmi ... visual effects producer
      Manesh Nepali ... roto artist
      Jeff Penick ... digital compositor
      Prasanna Pradhan ... roto artist
      Sushil Rai ... roto artist
      Yasodha Rai ... visual effects coordinator
      Lauren Ritchie ... visual effects producer
      Sandeep Shahi ... roto artist
      Anup Shakya ... visual effects supervisor
      D.J. Shea ... compositor
      Josh Shuman ... senior compositor
      Dane Allan Smith ... visual effects producer: Daneiam
      Charuhas Sonar ... visual effects producer
      Dottie Starling ... visual effects supervisor
      Prajwal Tamrakar ... roto artist
      Bob Tingle ... video assist/vtr playback
      Jenon Kaji Tuladhar ... data wrangler
      Yogeshwar Yoge ... digital artist


      Nadej k Bailey ... stunts
      Raven-Danielle Baker ... stunt performer
      Brent Bernhard ... stunt double: Brandon O'Dell
      Shellita Boxie ... stunt performer (stunt performer)
      Scheryl W Brown ... stunt performer
      Jwaundace Candece ... stunts
      Donny Carrington ... stunt performer
      Tye Claybrook Jr. ... stunt double: LaKeith Lee Stanfield (as Jimmie Lee Jackson)
      Alan D'Antoni ... stunt rigger
      Keith Davis ... stunts
      Jazzy Ellis ... stunts
      Nicholas Hayner ... stunt performer
      John Herndon ... stunts
      Mark Hicks Jr. ... stunt performer / stunts
      Damita Jane Howard ... stunt performer
      Mikeria Howard ... stunts
      Floyd Anthony Johns Jr. ... stunts
      Josh Lakatos ... stunt performer
      Scott Loeser ... stunt performer
      Tim McAdams ... stunt double: Cager Lee
      Keith Meriweather ... stunt performer
      Kevin Morgan ... stunts
      Josh Mueller ... utility stunts
      Dan B. Norris ... stunts
      Blake Pocquette ... Comanche stunts
      Ryan Robertson ... stunt marcher
      Cody Robinson ... stunt player
      Jeremy Sample ... stunt coordinator
      Trinity Simone ... stunts
      Greg Sproles ... stunt performer
      Christopher Tardieu ... stunt performer
      Todd Rogers Terry ... stunt performer
      Tommie Turvey ... stunt performer / stunts (as Tommie Turvey) / stunts
      Todd Warren ... stunts

      Camera and Electrical Department 

      Chris Birdsong ... key grip
      Steven Cueva ... first assistant camera: A Camera 2nd Unit
      Joe Elrom ... digital imaging technician
      Christian Epps ... gaffer
      Matt Evans ... additional loader
      Stanley Fernandez Jr. ... First assistant: "a" cam
      Patrick D. Fields ... grip
      Jordan Francais ... electrician
      Bob Gorelick ... additional camera operator / steadicam operator
      Andrew Hoehn Jr. ... first assistant camera: "b" camera
      Paige Jarvis ... best boy grip
      Bess Johnson ... digital utility
      Carl M. Johnson ... best boy / electric
      Justin Yardley Jones ... key rigging grip
      Dan Marrero ... phantom tech
      Hanna McGugan ... lighting programmer
      David McLendon ... lighting technician
      Atsushi Nishijima ... still photographer
      Tom Novell ... lighting technician
      Jamie Pair ... additional second assistant
      Allen Robinson ... rigging grip (as Allen Christopher Robinson)
      Scott Sealock ... best boy rigging grip
      Griff Thomas ... additional digital imaging technician / phantom technician
      Ken Woodbury ... "a" dolly grip

      Casting Department 

      Brandon Blevins ... extras casting assistant
      Bradley Clark ... extras casting associate
      Chad Darnell ... location casting associate
      Juliana Finch ... extras casting assistant
      Barbara Harris ... adr voice casting
      Cierra Harris ... extras casting assistant
      Daniel Jarvie ... casting: extras scout
      Matt Jones ... extras casting associate
      Msaada Nia ... casting assistant
      Belle Eseoghene Omabele ... casting assistant
      Robyn Owen ... associate casting director
      LaQuanda Plantt ... extras casting assistant
      Justice Singleton ... casting assistant (as Jennah Singleton)
      Cynthia Stillwell ... location casting
      Renee' Williams ... extras casting assistant

      Costume and Wardrobe Department 

      Ricardo Richard Alvarez ... key costumer BG
      Zina Arthur ... tailor
      Derron Cherry ... tailor
      Jim Alan Cook ... costumer
      Mercedes Cook ... set costumer
      Terrance Harris ... wardrobe assistant
      Dana Kay Hart ... costume supervisor
      Nhu-Anh Le ... Background Coordinator (as Annie Le)
      Barbara Marko ... Head Fitter / key fitter
      Kevin Mayes ... head tailor
      Frances McCorkle ... costumer
      Gertrude Moore ... tailor
      Christopher Opopo ... set costumer
      Paul A. Simmons Jr. ... assistant costume designer
      Sanford Slepak ... key costumer
      Icy White ... costumer

      Editorial Department 

      Paul E. Alderman ... first assistant editor
      Eileen Godoy ... digital intermediate producer
      Lashawn McGhee ... second assistant editor
      Chris McGuire ... assistant editor
      Mitch Paulson ... supervising digital colorist
      Amy Pawlowski ... digital intermediate editor
      Stephen Regnier ... digital workflow technician: EC3 - EFILM
      Scott Salamon ... dailies producer
      Ian Sullivan ... digital intermediate accountant
      Ed Twiford ... colorist: dailies
      Nicholas Winkelmann ... dailies operator
      Ava DuVernay ... rewrite (unconfirmed) (uncredited)

      Music Department 

      Clint Bennett ... additional music editor / music editor
      Mark Bächle ... orchestrator
      Teese Gohl ... orchestrator
      Joel Iwataki ... music scoring mixer
      Phil McGowan ... score mixing recordist
      Tracy McKnight ... Executive Score Producer
      Jason Moran ... composer: theme music
      Julie Pearce ... music editor
      Robert Puff ... music preparation
      Morgan Rhodes ... music supervisor
      David Sabee ... conductor / orchestra contractor
      Scott Tixier ... strings: violin

      Transportation Department 

      Norman J. Morton ... driver
      Sherry L. Stanley ... transportation
      Andy G. Strauss ... picture car coordinator

      Other crew 

      Rhona Alsworth ... E&O insurance
      Renetta G. Amador ... script supervisor
      Valeria Bullo ... Production Coordinator for Pathe
      Wendy Calloway ... assistant production coordinator
      Elisa Carlson ... dialect coach
      Jaan Childs ... location assistant
      Albert B. Cooper IV ... location scout
      Ian Crockett ... post production accountant
      Lauren Elizabeth Cummings ... production assistant
      Gaia Elkington ... assistant: Christian Colson
      Ethan D. Firestone ... production assistant
      Riley Flanagan ... set production assistant
      Jay Floyd ... clearance administrator
      Erin G. Fuller ... location scout
      Liz Goldsmith ... wrangler
      Charles Guanci Jr. ... armorer
      Nicole Haas ... wrangler
      Wes Hagan ... location manager
      Elizabeth Himelstein ... dialect coach: David Oyelowo, Tim Roth
      Jade A. Holmes ... travel coordinator
      Mary Jasionowski ... production accountant
      Lanaria Johnson ... set production assistant: first team
      Elisabeth Kiernan Averick ... production secretary
      Melanie Manning ... locations scout
      Kamisha McCullough ... second assistant accountant
      Timothy Mckeever ... second assistant accountant
      Carissa O'Hara ... Payroll Accountant
      Kenn Rabin ... archival producer
      Irwin M. Rappaport ... production counsel
      Hernan Rey del Castillo ... location assistant
      Len Rowles ... for: Pathé
      Ken Roy ... studio executive: New Millennium Studios
      Haley Ruth Sands ... accounts clerk
      Aric Sabin ... set production assistant
      Katherine Silva ... second assistant production accountant
      Terence V. Steele ... production assistant
      Cryselle Stewart ... assistant location manager
      Amy Stoller ... dialect coach
      Leif Tilden ... locations scout
      Chantal Turvey ... Head wrangler
      Tommie Turvey ... Horse master / wrangler
      Cynthia D. Williams ... assistant locations manager
      Lesley Wise ... Ingenious Media
      Colleen Woodcock ... for: Pathé
      Daniel Villagomez ... credits administrator (uncredited)


      Gordon Bobb ... thanks
      Rand Holston ... thanks
      Janssen Robinson ... thanks
      Nina Shaw ... thanks
      Ben Weiss ... thanks

      See also

      Release Dates|Official Sites|Box Office/Business|Company Credits|Filming Locations|Technical Specs|Literature


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    "As Popa penetrates deeper into his life, it begins to look like a Universe passing through a Universe. It is one of the most exciting things in modern poetry, to watch this journey being made."—Ted Hughes
    Building on surrealist fables and traditional folktales, personal anecdotes and the tribal myths of his Serbian homeland, Vasko Popa created one of the most original poetries of the twentieth century.

    Product Details

    Editorial Reviews

    About the Author

    Vasko Popa (1922-91) was born in Vrsac in the Serbian Banat. He was elected to the Serbian Academy in 1972 and the Académie Mallarmé in Paris in 1977. He lived in Belgrade where he worked as an editor for the publishers Nolit. Morton Marcus has published ten volumes of poetry and one novel, including The Santa Cruz Mountain Poems, Pages From A Scrapbook of Immigrants, When People Could Fly, Moments Without Names: New & Selected Prose Poems, Shouting Down The Silence: Verse Poems 1988-2001 and Pursuing The Dream Bone. His latest book is Striking Through The Masks: A Literary Memoir.


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    by richard e whitelock on February 6, 2015
    Format: Paperback Verified Purchase
    This book is just right for kids in the 1st grade through 5th or 6th. At this age, they haven't heard much about the Revolution or our Founding Fathers, so George is a great book to start with. There are lots of drawings and the reading is easy. The story is even better and books of this reading level will get the facts straight and at the same time encourage our kids to read on. Nice job, I would buy the entire series and read them to my kids at night, at least as often as I read Harry Potter to them.

    I like reading about how America looked back in the day and exactly how folks spent their time. Washington and his early days were spent as a privileged citizen. He became a very good horseman and was well respected. His early years as a military leader for the colony were not great. But he did show signs as a leader if not an expert military tactician. He was victorious 3 out of 9 major confrontations with the British. So his war record was not exactly good except for one major accomplishments- he outlasted the British and accepted their surrender at Yorktown. My 1st and 2nd graders were very disappointed that he didn't cut down the cherry tree, so I now leave that out of my presentations. The main thing they gain from this book is that America was all but "one and done" when it came to waging war and gaining their independence. But through trust and outstanding leadership, not only did Washington end the war victoriously, but he was elected our first president. And had he not attended the writing of our constitution and led the representatives, I doubt seriously that the 13 colonies, now states would have ever agreed to become the United States of America back in 1787.

    Washington was our leader. The people trusted him and followed his lead through many harrowing experiences.
    Read more ›
    Comment Was this review helpful to you? Yes No
    2 of 2 people found the following review helpful

    By carla kuester on March 31, 2014
    Format: Paperback Verified Purchase
    So fun and simple to read with a fledgling General...would recommend for all who love a true American Hero...especially those who want to impart their love for GW on the kiddos.
    Comment Was this review helpful to you? Yes No
    1 of 1 people found the following review helpful
    By Jennifer on March 17, 2014
    Format: Paperback Verified Purchase
    I bought these for my third grade classroom. They are great for the biography genre and then to use for report writing. The three years I've used them so far the kids LOVED them. Easy for their reading levels, informative, and people they have heard of in their lives. They would read their own and then read other that they had heard of. Could have left these books out 1/2 year and they would have still been reading them. 

    check out these books at

    Who was George Washington
    Who is Annapolis Montuwa

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    Pitch Perfect 2

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Pitch Perfect 2
    Pitch Perfect 2 poster.jpg
    Theatrical release poster
    Directed by Elizabeth Banks
    Produced by
    Written by Kay Cannon
    Based on
    • Characters created
      by Kay Cannon
    • Pitch Perfect: The Quest for Collegiate A Cappella Glory
      by Mickey Rapkin
    Music by
    Cinematography Jim Denault
    Edited by Craig Alpert
    Distributed by Universal Pictures
    Release dates
    • April 20, 2015 (Las Vegas premiere)
    • May 15, 2015
    Running time
    115 minutes[1]
    Country United States
    Language English
    Budget $29 million[2]
    Box office $117.8 million[3]
    Pitch Perfect 2 is a 2015 American musicalcomedy film directed by Elizabeth Banks and written by Kay Cannon. It is a sequel to the 2012 film Pitch Perfect, which was loosely adapted from Mickey Rapkin's non-fiction book, titled Pitch Perfect: The Quest for Collegiate A Cappella Glory. The film centers on the fictional Barden University and The Bellas, an-all female a capella singing group. The film features an ensemble cast that includes Anna Kendrick, Rebel Wilson, Brittany Snow, Ester Dean, Hana Mae Lee, and Alexis Knapp. It was released on May 15, 2015 by Universal Pictures. The film received generally positive reviews and has grossed over $117 million, surpassing the total gross of the original film ($115.4 million) in just five days.


    Following an incident involving Fat Amy having a wardrobe malfunction at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, the Barden Bellas are suspended from the circuit of a capella performing. In order to regain their status, the Bellas enter the international competition—a colossal task since no American team has ever won.


    The Barden Bellas

    • Anna Kendrick as Beca Mitchell, the senior co-leader of the Bellas, known for creating the unique modern-day sound of the Bellas. She is an aspiring record producer and is now an intern at Residual Heat, a record label. She is dating Jesse Swanson, a senior leader of the Barden Treblemakers.
    • Rebel Wilson as Patricia "Fat Amy", an overweight senior Bella from Australia and Bumper's love interest.
    • Brittany Snow as Chloe Beale, the three-time super senior with a Type A personality who is the co-leader of the Bellas.
    • Ester Dean as Cynthia-Rose Adams, a lesbian senior Bella.
    • Alexis Knapp as Stacie Conrad, a senior Bella known for being overly sexual.
    • Hana Mae Lee as Lilly Onakurama, a senior Bella known for her quiet speaking voice, odd remarks, and beat-boxing.
    • Kelley Jakle as Jessica, a senior Bella.
    • Shelley Regner as Ashley, a senior Bella.
    • Hailee Steinfeld as Emily Junk, a freshman legacy Bella who is aspiring in writing songs. Her mother was also a Barden Bella.
    • Chrissie Fit as Florencia "Flo" Fuentes, a senior Bella who joined the group her sophomore year when she came to Barden University from Guatemala.

    Additional characters


    In December 2012, Skylar Astin revealed that he and Rebel Wilson had had meetings with Universal Studios about the potential sequel.[4] In April 2013, it was confirmed that a sequel would be released in 2015.[5]Elizabeth Banks directed the sequel, and Kay Cannon returned as screenwriter.[6] Paul Brooks produced for Gold Circle Films, alongside Banks and Max Handelman.[6]Deke Sharon returned as vocal producer.[7] As in the first movie, they ran a month of "a cappella boot camp" before filming.[8]


    Anna Kendrick and Wilson returned, playing the characters they originated in the first film.[9]Brittany Snow reprised her character.[10] On April 24, Chrissie Fit was added to the cast.[11]
    On May 1, Hailee Steinfeld was added to the cast, playing a new member of the Barden Bellas.[12] On May 5, Adam DeVine was reported to return in the film.[13] On May 14, Katey Sagal was added to the cast, playing Steinfeld's character's mother.[14]
    On May 29, Flula Borg was added to the cast.[15] He played the leader of a European a cappella group, Das Sound Machine, that competed with the Bellas.[16] It was confirmed on June 18, 2014 that Christopher Shepard was added to the cast.[17]
    It was confirmed on June 19, 2014 that Pentatonix would play the role of a rival group to the Barden Bellas.[18] It was later confirmed that The Filharmonic from season 4 of The Sing Off would make a cameo appearance as a rival group from the Philippines.[19] On August 24, 2014 it was announced that Penn Masala,[20] the all-male Hindi a cappella group from director Elizabeth Banks's and producer Max Handelman's alma mater The University of Pennsylvania, would be featured as a team from Southeast Asia.[21] On June 25, Birgitte Hjort Sørensen was confirmed added to the cast.[22]


    On May 21, 2014, principal photography took place at Louisiana State University (LSU) campus in Baton Rouge.[23]

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    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Avengers: Age of Ultron
    Avengers Age of Ultron.jpg
    Theatrical release poster
    Directed by Joss Whedon
    Produced by Kevin Feige
    Written by Joss Whedon
    Based on The Avengers
    by Stan Lee
    Jack Kirby
    Music by
    Cinematography Ben Davis
    Edited by
    Distributed by Walt Disney Studios
    Motion Pictures
    Release dates
    Running time
    141 minutes[1]
    Country United States
    Language English
    Budget $279.9 million1
    Box office $1.349 billion[2]
    Avengers: Age of Ultron is a 2015 American superhero film based on the Marvel Comics superhero team the Avengers, produced by Marvel Studios and distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures. It is the sequel to 2012's The Avengers and the eleventh installment in the Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU). The film was written and directed by Joss Whedon and features an ensemble cast that includes Robert Downey Jr., Chris Hemsworth, Mark Ruffalo, Chris Evans, Scarlett Johansson, Jeremy Renner, Don Cheadle, Aaron Taylor-Johnson, Elizabeth Olsen, Paul Bettany, Cobie Smulders, Anthony Mackie, Hayley Atwell, Idris Elba, Stellan Skarsgård, James Spader, and Samuel L. Jackson. In Avengers: Age of Ultron, the Avengers must work together to defeat Ultron, a mechanical artificial intelligence bent on human extinction.
    The sequel was announced in May 2012, after the successful release of The Avengers. Whedon, the director of the first film, was brought back on board in August and a release date was set. By April 2013, Whedon had completed a draft of the script, and casting began in June with the re-signing of Downey. Second unit filming began in February 2014 in South Africa with principal photography taking place between March and August 2014. The film was primarily shot at Shepperton Studios in Surrey, England, with additional footage filmed in Italy, South Korea, Bangladesh, New York, and various locations around England.
    Avengers: Age of Ultron premiered in Los Angeles on April 13, 2015, and was released on May 1, 2015 in North America, in 3D and IMAX 3D. Upon its release, the film received positive reviews and has grossed over $1.3 billion worldwide, making it the second highest-grossing film of 2015 (behind Furious 7) and the fifth highest-grossing film of all time. Two sequels, Avengers: Infinity War – Part 1 and Avengers: Infinity War – Part 2, are scheduled to be released on May 4, 2018, and May 3, 2019, respectively.


    In the Eastern European country of Sokovia, the AvengersTony Stark, Steve Rogers, Thor, Bruce Banner, Natasha Romanoff, and Clint Barton– raid a Hydra outpost led by Baron Wolfgang von Strucker, who has been experimenting on humans using the scepter previously wielded by Loki. They encounter two of Strucker's experiments – twins Pietro, who has superhuman speed, and Wanda Maximoff, who can manipulate minds and project energy – and apprehend Strucker, while Stark retrieves Loki's scepter.
    Stark and Banner discover an artificial intelligence within the scepter's gem, and secretly use it to complete Stark's "Ultron" global defense program. The unexpectedly sentient Ultron, believing he must eradicate humanity to save Earth, eliminates Stark's A.I., J.A.R.V.I.S., and attacks the Avengers at their headquarters. Escaping with the scepter, Ultron uses the resources in Strucker's Sokovia base to upgrade his rudimentary body and build an army of robot drones. Having killed Strucker, he recruits the Maximoffs, who hold Stark responsible for their parents' deaths by his weapons. Together, they go to the base of arms dealer Ulysses Klaue in an African shipyard to obtain Wakandanvibranium. The Avengers pursue them, but Wanda subdues the heroes with haunting visions, causing the Hulk to rampage until Stark stops him with his anti-Hulk armor.2
    A worldwide backlash over the resulting destruction, and the fears Wanda's hallucinations incited, send the team into hiding at Barton's safehouse. Thor departs to consult with Dr. Erik Selvig on the meaning of the apocalyptic future he saw in his hallucination, while Romanoff and Banner plan to flee together after realizing a mutual attraction. However, Nick Fury arrives and encourages the team to form a plan to stop Ultron. In Seoul, Ultron forces the team's friend Dr. Helen Cho to use her synthetic-tissue technology, together with vibranium and the scepter's gem, to perfect a new body for him. As Ultron uploads himself into the body, Wanda is able to read his mind; discovering his plan for human extinction, the Maximoffs turn on Ultron. Rogers, Romanoff, and Barton find Ultron and retrieve the synthetic body, but Ultron captures Romanoff.
    The Avengers fight amongst themselves when Stark secretly uploads J.A.R.V.I.S. – who is still operational after hiding from Ultron inside the Internet – into the synthetic body. Thor returns to help activate the body, explaining that the gem on its brow – one of the six Infinity Stones, the most powerful objects in existence – was part of his vision. This "Vision" and the Maximoffs accompany the Avengers to Sokovia, where Ultron has used the remaining vibranium to build a machine to lift a large part of the capital city skyward, intending to crash it into the ground to cause global extinction. Banner rescues Romanoff, who awakens the Hulk for the battle. The Avengers fight Ultron's army while Fury arrives in a Helicarrier with Maria Hill, James Rhodes and S.H.I.E.L.D. agents to evacuate civilians. Pietro dies when he shields Barton from gunfire, and a vengeful Wanda abandons her post to destroy Ultron's primary body, which allows one of his drones to activate the machine. The city plummets, but Stark and Thor overload the machine and shatter the landmass. In the aftermath, the Hulk, unwilling to endanger Romanoff by being with her, departs in a Quinjet, while the Vision confronts Ultron's last remaining body.
    Later, with the Avengers having established a new base run by Fury, Hill, Cho, and Selvig, Thor returns to Asgard to learn more about the forces he suspects have manipulated recent events. As Stark and Barton also leave, Rogers and Romanoff prepare to train new Avengers: Rhodes, the Vision, Sam Wilson, and Wanda.
    In a mid-credits scene, Thanos, dissatisfied by the failures of his pawns, dons a gauntlet3 and vows to personally retrieve the Infinity Stones.


    Cast of Avengers: Age of Ultron at the 2014 San Diego Comic-Con International.
    The benefactor of the Avengers,[3][4][5] who is a self-described genius, billionaire, playboy, and philanthropist with electromechanical suits of armor of his own invention.[6] On how his character evolves after the events of Iron Man 3, Downey said, " kinda reminds me of like all that stuff particularly as you get a little older or if you have any existential queries whatsoever. It's like why aren't I dealing with that which is going to destroy me any second anyway? And then the armor was kind of an extension of that. And also there was just so many suits, but I think he realizes that tweaking and making all the suits in the world—which is what he has been doing—still didn't work for that thing of his tour of duty that left him a little PTSD. So his focus is more on how can we make it so that there's no problem to begin with. That, you know, there's a bouncer at our planet's rope. That's the big idea."[7]
    An Avenger and the crown prince of Asgard, based on the Norse mythological deity of the same name.[8] About Thor's place in the film, Hemsworth said, "Well, Thor stayed on Earth from [Thor: The Dark World]. So he's here. He's part of the team. This is his home for the moment. So the initial threat of attack from Ultron is personal. Thor then begins to see a bigger picture about what this threat could potentially be and it begins to tie into all of our films."[9] Commenting on his portrayal of the character, Hemsworth said, "What becomes a challenge is trying to not repeat the same thing all the time. So you've got to work that bit harder to see what else you can do with the character." He added, " was just lightening up a bit. It gave us room to kind of make him a little more grounded and human and have him in some civilian clothes and mixing it up at a party. I want to do those scenes more. It's what I loved about the first [Thor film]. There was an innocence and naïveté to him, which as he matured into the king of the second [Thor film]—or the rightful king—we sort of lost a little bit of that."[10] Hemsworth noted that this is the first MCU film in which he did not work closely with Tom Hiddleston. "I was interested to see what was gonna be his conflict or his motivation, because he was sort of driven by that relationship previously. I love working with Tom, and I think there's always room for more Thor and Loki stuff, but it's nice to do something completely different."[5]
    An Avenger and a genius scientist who, because of exposure to gamma radiation, transforms into a monster when enraged or agitated.[11] Ruffalo worked with motion capture performer Andy Serkis'The Imaginarium Studios in preparation for the role.[12] Ruffalo added, "[My role's] even bigger than last time, and it's more complex and it has more layers and a bit more arc. Not only that, but it seems that the motion capture process is becoming a whole lot more agreeable second time around. I'm really tripping on the technology of this motion-capture stuff... now I just completely embrace it and see it as this other exciting place we can go as performers."[13] Describing the relationship between Banner and Hulk in the film, Ruffalo said, "I think there's a whole relationship with Banner and Hulk that needs to be discovered. There's a very cool thing happening: Hulk is as afraid of Banner as Banner is afraid of Hulk." Ruffalo added, "Both of these guys are obviously the same guy, and they have got to come to peace somehow with each other. And I think that this confrontation is building along the lines of this film."[14] While filming in London, Ruffalo said that Whedon still had not given him any of the Hulk's lines.[15] Whedon later explained that he writes the Hulk's dialogue spontaneously, saying, "What makes the Hulk so hard to write is that you're pretending he's a werewolf when he's a superhero. You want it vice versa. You want to see him, Banner doesn't want to see him, but you don't want Banner to be that guy who gets in the way of you seeing him. So the question is, how has he progressed? How can we bring changes on what the Hulk does? And that's not just in the screenplay, that's moment to moment."[16]
    The leader of the Avengers[3][5] and a World War II veteran, who was enhanced to the peak of human physicality by an experimental serum and frozen in suspended animation before waking up in the modern world.[17][18] Describing his character's place in the film, Evans said, "He's still looking for a home, probably a metaphorical home. He's always felt comfortable as a soldier. And he likes structure. He works well taking orders. But when that dynamic turned on him, he's now left to depend upon his team, the Avengers. There really is no one above them telling them what to do. They're kind of having to operate independently. So there's a lot of leaning on one another, but there really isn't a kind of clear chain of command. And I think Cap looks for that. I think he's looking to understand where he belongs, not just as a soldier, as Captain America, but as Steve Rogers, as a person."[10] Evans said that he was able to maintain the strength he built up for Captain America: The Winter Soldier by working out up to an hour a day. Evans said, " pull the plug about two to three weeks before you wrap. When you see the finish line coming, you are so glad to not have to think about the gym. But we are starting Avengers 2, so over the past month, I have been hitting it pretty hard."[19] Regarding Captain America's fighting style, Evans said, "You just can’t be Jason Bourne. We gotta see this guy do stuff that’s like, yeah, he deserves a spot on this squad. In [Winter Soldier] he’s pinballing off of jets and doing unbelievable things. I don’t wanna take a step back, so we gotta make sure that he’s continuing training. His fight style needs to advance a little bit. I don’t wanna go full Bruce Lee, but there needs to be more than just haymakers and fun kicks. There needs to be a consistent display of strength. Utilize your environment in a way that’s like, 'That’s right, he can pick up a motorcycle with one hand...'"[20]
    An Avenger who formerly worked for S.H.I.E.L.D. as a highly trained spy.[21] Producer Kevin Feige stated that more of the character's backstory is explored in the film.[22] Johansson elaborated, "In Avengers 2 we go back... we definitely learn more about Widow's backstory, and we get to find out how she became the person you see. All of these characters have deep, dark pasts, and I think that the past catches up to some of us a little bit."[23] On where the film picks up Widow's story, Johansson said, "At this stage, when you see the Widow, she's—especially in Avengers, these characters all have a past, and hers is a very complex one, where she's realizing—and it's kind of a continuation of [The Winter Soldier]—'I've never made an active choice. I'm a product of other people's imposition.' That's going to catch up with her. That's bound to have a huge effect. There's got to be a result of that realization... You'll see her actively making some choices in her life, for better or worse."[24] A mixture of close-ups, concealing costumes, stunt doubles and visual effects were used to help hide Johansson's pregnancy during filming.[25]
    An Avenger and master archer who previously worked as an agent for S.H.I.E.L.D.[26] Whedon said that Hawkeye interacts more with the other characters in the film, as opposed to the first film where the character had been "possessed pretty early by a bad guy and had to walk around all scowly."[27] As the character did not appear in any other of Marvel's Phase Two films, Whedon stated Age of Ultron sheds light on to what the character was doing since the end of The Avengers.[16] About the character, Renner said, "[Hawkeye] is kind of a loner anyway, and he’s a team player only 'cause he sort of has to be. He’s not really a company man. Captain America can be that guy. In [Age of Ultron] you'll understand why [Hawkeye] thinks the way he thinks."[20]
    The twin brother of the Scarlet Witch, who can move at superhuman speed.[30] About the character Taylor-Johnson said, "Him [sic] and his sister [Scarlet Witch] have been abandoned by their parents and their father, and they grew up in Eastern Europe defending and looking out for themselves and each other... His sister really is his guidance—emotionally she's the one who looks after him, and vice versa. He's very overprotective physically—he doesn't want anyone touching her." Taylor-Johnson also said that Quicksilver has "real anger frustration" and is easily bored due to a short attention span.[31] Feige stated exploring Quicksilver's relationship with his sister and his backstory growing up in Eastern Europe would help differentiate the character from Evan Peters' version in X-Men: Days of Future Past (2014).[32] Taylor-Johnson stated that the running style for Quicksilver went through multiple iterations, saying, "The running style we tested early on was just very one-dimensional and boring to look at, but if you try to do free running, like parkour, then that's very much Captain America's style... You have to find your own place in the stunt world."[5] Much of Taylor-Johnson's scenes were filmed outdoors to give "life" to his running, as opposed to running on a treadmill in front of a green screen.[33]
    The twin sister of Quicksilver, who can harness magic and engage in hypnosis and telekinesis.[30][34] Olsen said, "The reason she's so special is because she has such a vast amount of knowledge that she's unable to learn how to control it. No one taught her how to control it properly. So it gets the best of her. It's not that she's mentally insane, it's just that she's just overly stimulated. And she can connect to this world and parallel worlds at the same time, and parallel times."[34] Describing her character's mind control powers, Olsen said, "I am able to go into someone's head and they'd never see. I can feel and see what they feel and see. So it's not just me manipulating them. What I love about her is that, in so many superhero films, emotions are kind of negated a bit, but for her everything that someone else could feel—like their weakest moments—she physically goes through that same experience with them, which is pretty cool."[35] Olsen drew on her relationship with her older brother and her sisters to prepare for the role,[34] as well as looking to the comics for inspiration.[5] Olsen revealed that Whedon was inspired by dancers as a way to visually represent how the character moves. As such, Olsen mostly trained with a dancer in lieu of traditional stunt training.[36] Olsen is signed for this film and another.[33]
    Bettany, who voiced J.A.R.V.I.S., Stark's A.I. companion in previous films, was cast again as the Vision,[37][38] an android created by Ultron.[39] About the casting, Bettany said, "I got a call on a Friday night from Joss going 'Do you want to be the Vision?' I can't explain the amount of luck that went into that. And frankly for ages, because I understood once you were one character in a Marvel series and never another, I understood that was my thing. I'd be J.A.R.V.I.S. and get my bag of cash and go."[40] On what intrigued him about the Vision, Bettany said, "The thing that appealed to me is that this sort of nascent creature being born, being both omnipotent and totally naive, the sort of danger of that and complex nature of a thing being born that is that powerful and that created in a second and the choices he makes morally are really complex and interesting. They've really managed to maintain all of that".[40] Bettany also stated that the Vision feels paternal and protective to a number of people in the film, particularly Scarlet Witch, and has the ability to change his density. Bettany did wire work for the part.[40] Whedon stated he wanted to include the Vision before he signed onto the first film, explaining, "I said, 'Well, I don’t know if I'm right for this or if I want it or you want me, but in the second one, the villain has Ultron and he has to create the Vision, and then, that has to be Paul Bettany.' It took me three years before I could tell Paul that I'd had that conversation, but after that, I stopped. I was like, 'That would be cool if there’s you have Ultron and you have Vision and Paul played him.'"[16]
    A former high-ranking S.H.I.E.L.D. agent who now works for Stark.[41][42][43] Describing Hill's situation in the film, Smulders said, "I think, you know, after [Captain America: The Winter Soldier]'re sort of left a bit shell shocked, and I think we're coming into this movie where we don't really know who's a good guy and who's a bad guy and she's trying to figure out that throughout this film." She added, "She's not getting any sleep. She's doing all the work. She doesn't have the kind of manpower that she had in S.H.I.E.L.D."[44] Elaborating on this, Smulders later said, "She’s working for Tony Stark, yes, but they shot so many locations all over the world and this team is out doing all sorts of things. So I like to think that Maria is at headquarters, trying to keep everything running as smoothly as possible. And working for Tony Stark is a whole other ballgame. She doesn’t have S.H.I.E.L.D. personnel to back her up at her disposal, so it’s an entirely different vibe for her."[45]
    A pararescueman trained by the military in aerial combat using a specially designed wing pack and a friend of Steve Rogers.[46] Discussing the relationship between Wilson and Rogers, Mackie said, "With Falcon and Cap, what's so great is there's a mutual respect. There's a soldier respect. What's great about Age of Ultron and [Captain America: Civil War] is you get to see their relationship grow."[47]
    An artificial intelligence repurposed by Tony Stark and Bruce Banner for a pilot peace program that is overwhelmed with a god complex, and now desires to pacify the Earth by eradicating humanity.[39][51][52][53][54][55] Director Joss Whedon stated that Spader was his "first and only choice" for the role, because of his "hypnotic voice that can be eerily calm and compelling" while also being very human and humorous.[56] Feige clarified, "We'll be capturing his face and his body to create a whole performance... We did not hire James Spader to do a robot voice."[57] Extensive scans were taken of Spader's head and body in preparation for the role.[58] About the character Whedon said, "He's always trying to destroy the Avengers, goddamn it, he's got a bee in his bonnet. He's not a happy guy, which means he's an interesting guy. He's got pain. And the way that manifests is not going to be standard robot stuff."[59] Whedon added that Ultron is "not a creature of logic—he's a robot who's genuinely disturbed. We're finding out what makes him menacing and at the same time endearing and funny and strange and unexpected, and everything a robot never is."[60] Whedon compared Ultron to Frankenstein's monster, saying, "It's our new Frankenstein myth [...] We create something in our own image and the thing turns on us. It has that pain of 'Well, why was I made? I want to kill Daddy.'"[61] Spader called the character "self-absorbed" and added, "I think he sees the Avengers as being part of a problem, a more comprehensive problem in the world. He sees the world from a very strange, [biblical] point of view because he's brand new, he's very young... He's immature, and yet has knowledge of comprehensive, broad history and precedent, and he has created in a very short period of time a rather skewed worldview."[62]
    The former director of S.H.I.E.L.D. who originally recruited the Avengers and continues to be a mentor and leader for the team.[54][63] Jackson described the role as a cameo, saying, "I'm just kind of passing by there ... Because, it's another one of those 'people who have powers fighting people who have powers'. That's why I didn't get to New York in The Avengers. There's not a lot I could do except shoot a gun."[64]
    Thomas Kretschmann and Henry Goodman return as Baron Wolfgang von Strucker and Dr. List,[65][66]Hydra leaders who specialize in human experimentation, advanced robotics, and artificial intelligence.[54]Linda Cardellini portrays Laura Barton, Hawkeye's wife.[67][68]Claudia Kim portrays Helen Cho, a world-renowned geneticist who helps the Avengers from her office in Seoul,[54][69] and Andy Serkis portrays Ulysses Klaue, a black-market arms dealer, smuggler and gangster, who is a former acquaintance of Stark’s from his weapons-dealing days.[29][54][70]Julie Delpy appears as Madame B., who mentored Black Widow into becoming an assassin.[71]Kerry Condon voices the artificial intelligence F.R.I.D.A.Y., Stark's replacement for J.A.R.V.I.S.[72]Josh Brolin makes an uncredited appearance during the mid-credits scene as Thanos.[73] Avengers co-creator Stan Lee makes a cameo appearance in the film as a military veteran who attends the Avengers' victory party.[74]

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    Welcome to the Village of Essex Junction, in the heart of Chittenden County, Vermont. Our friendly neighborhoods and 19th-century buildings reflect our Vermont village heritage. Our focus on good schools and a vibrant local economy reflect our commitment to building a sustainable community with an excellent quality of life.

    Brownell block building,

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    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    This article is about the 2008 film. For the video game based on it, see WALL-E (video game). For the film's soundtrack, see WALL-E (soundtrack).
    Theatrical release poster
    Directed by Andrew Stanton
    Produced by Jim Morris
    Screenplay by Andrew Stanton
    Jim Reardon
    Story by Andrew Stanton
    Pete Docter
    Starring Ben Burtt
    Elissa Knight
    Jeff Garlin
    Fred Willard
    John Ratzenberger
    Kathy Najimy
    Sigourney Weaver
    Music by Thomas Newman
    Cinematography Jeremy Lasky
    Danielle Feinberg
    Edited by Stephen Schaffer
    Distributed by Walt Disney Studios
    Motion Pictures
    Release dates
    • June 23, 2008 (Los Angeles premiere)
    • June 27, 2008 (United States)
    Running time
    98 minutes
    Country United States
    Language English
    Budget $180 million[1]
    Box office $521.3 million[2]
    WALL-E (stylized with an interpunct as WALL·E) is a 2008 American computer-animatedscience-fictioncomedy film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures. Directed by Andrew Stanton, the story follows a robot named WALL-E, who is designed to clean up an abandoned, waste-covered Earth far in the future. He falls in love with another robot named EVE, who also has a programmed task, and follows her into outer space on an adventure that changes the destiny of both his kind and humanity. Both robots exhibit an appearance of free will and emotions similar to humans, which develop further as the film progresses.
    After directing Finding Nemo, Stanton felt Pixar had created believable simulations of underwater physics and was willing to direct a film set largely in space. WALL-E has minimal dialogue in its early sequences; many of the characters do not have voices, but instead communicate with body language and robotic sounds, which were designed by Ben Burtt. It is also Pixar's first animated feature with segments featuring live-action characters.
    WALL-E was released in the United States and Canada on June 27, 2008. It grossed $23.2 million on its opening day, and $63.1 million during its opening weekend in 3,992 theaters, ranking number one at the box office. This ranks as the fifth highest-grossing opening weekend for a Pixar film. Following Pixar tradition, WALL-E was paired with a short film, Presto, for its theatrical release.
    WALL-E was met with critical acclaim, scoring an approval rating of 96% on the review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes. It grossed $521.3 million worldwide, won the 2008 Golden Globe Award for Best Animated Feature Film, the 2009 Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation, Long Form,[3] the final Nebula Award for Best Script,[4] the Saturn Award for Best Animated Film, and the Academy Award for Best Animated Feature as well as being nominated for five other Academy Awards at the 81st Academy Awards. WALL-E ranks first in TIME‍ '​s "Best Movies of the Decade".[5] The film is seen as a critique on larger societal issues. It addresses consumerism, corporatism, nostalgia, environmental problems, waste management, human impact on the environment, and risks to human civilization and the planet Earth.[6]


    In 2805, Earth is covered in heaps of garbage due to decades of mass consumerism facilitated by the megacorporation Buy 'n' Large ("BnL"). In 2105, BnL evacuated Earth's population in fully automated starliners, leaving behind WALL-E trash compactor robots to clean the planet. Eventually BnL abandons its plan and shuts down the WALL-E robots, except for one which develops sentience after 700 years of life-experience. He manages to remain active by repairing himself using parts from other units.
    One day, WALL-E discovers a growing seedling. Later, a spaceship lands and deploys EVE, an advanced robot probe sent from the BnL starlinerAxiom to search for vegetation on Earth. WALL-E falls in love with the initially cold and hostile EVE, who gradually softens and befriends him. When WALL-E brings EVE to his home and shows her his collection, she sees the plant, automatically stores it inside herself, and goes into standby mode waiting for her ship to retrieve her. WALL-E, not understanding why EVE seems to have shut down, tries numerous methods to reactivate her. When EVE's automated ship returns and collects EVE, WALL-E clings to its hull and thus travels through space to the Axiom, which is hidden behind a nebula.
    On the Axiom, the descendants of the ship's original passengers have become morbidly obese after centuries of microgravity effects and relying on the ship's automated systems for their every need. The ship's current captain, McCrea, leaves most of the ship's operations under the control of its robotic autopilot, Auto.
    WALL-E follows EVE to the bridge of the Axiom, where the Captain learns that by putting the plant in the ship's holo-detector to verify Earth's habitability, the Axiom will make a hyperjump back to Earth so the passengers can recolonize it. However, Auto orders McCrea's robotic assistant GO-4 to steal the plant as part of his own no return directive "A113", which was issued to all BnL autopilots after the corporation concluded in 2110 that the planet could not be saved.
    With the plant missing, EVE is considered defective and taken to the repair ward along with WALL-E (for cleaning). WALL-E mistakes the process on EVE for torture and tries to save her, accidentally releasing a horde of malfunctioning robots that had been quarantined. The on-board security systems then designate both WALL-E and EVE as "rogue robots". Fed up with WALL-E's disruptions, EVE takes him to the escape pod bay to send him home, but they witness GO-4 dispose of the missing plant by placing it inside a pod which is set to self-destruct. WALL-E enters the pod to retrieve the plant, but GO-4 jettisons the pod into space. WALL-E escapes with the plant before the pod explodes, using a fire extinguisher to propel himself back toward the Axiom, where he and EVE reconcile and celebrate with a dance in space.
    When the plant is brought to the captain, EVE's recordings of Earth are analyzed and the captain concludes that mankind must return to restore their planet. However, Auto reveals his directive and stages a mutiny. When WALL-E tries to protect the plant, Auto electrocutes him, severely damaging him. EVE realizes the only parts for repairing WALL-E are in his truck back on Earth. She helps him bring the plant to the holo-detector to activate the ship's hyperjump. McCrea opens the holo-detector and fights Auto for control of the ship. Auto partially crushes WALL-E by closing the holo-detector on him, but McCrea finally disables him. EVE places the plant in the holo-detector, freeing WALL-E and instantly setting the Axiom to hyperjump to Earth.
    EVE rushes WALL-E back to his home where she repairs and reactivates him, but he no longer recognizes her, having reverted to his original programming as an emotionless waste compactor, and he begins crushing the artifacts he had collected in his truck. Heartbroken, EVE follows WALL-E outside, stops him and gives him a farewell kiss, which jolts his memory and restores his personality. WALL-E and EVE happily reunite as the humans and robots of the Axiom begin to restore Earth and its environment.

    Cast and characters

    • Ben Burtt produced the voice of WALL-E (Waste Allocation Load Lifter – Earth-class), the title character. WALL-E, a robot who has developed sentience, is the only robot of his kind shown to be still functioning on Earth. He is a small mobile compactor box with all-terrain treads, three-fingered shovel hands, binocular eyes, and retractable solar cells for power. He collects spare parts for himself, which becomes pivotal to the plot, and replaces broken and/or worn out parts on-the-fly by cannibalizing other defunct WALL-Es. Although working diligently to fulfill his directive to clean up the garbage (all the while accompanied by his cockroach friend Hal and music playing from his on-board recorder) he is distracted by his curiosity, collecting trinkets of interest. He stores and displays these "treasures" such as a birdcage full of rubber ducks, a Rubik's Cube, Zippo lighters, disposable cups filled with plastic cutlery and a golden trophy at his home where he examines and categorizes his finds while watching video cassettes of musicals via an iPod viewed through a large Fresnel lens.
      • Burtt is also credited for the voice of M-O (Microbe Obliterator), as well as most of the other robots. M-O is a tiny, obsessively clean maintenance robot with rollers for hands who keeps Axiom clean.
    • Elissa Knight as EVE (Extraterrestrial Vegetation Evaluator), a sleek robot probe whose directive is to locate vegetation on Earth and verify habitability. She has a glossy white egg-shaped body and blue LED eyes. She moves using antigravity technology and is equipped with scanners, specimen storage and a plasma cannon in her arm, which she is quick to use.
    • Jeff Garlin as Captain B. McCrea, the commander, and apparently only officer, on the Axiom. His duties as captain are daily routines, with the ship's autopilot handling all true command functions.
    • Fred Willard as Shelby Forthright, historical CEO of the Buy n Large Corporation, shown only in videos recorded around the time of the Axiom‍  '​s initial launch. Constantly optimistic, Forthright proposed the evacuation plans, then to clean up and recolonize the planet. However, the corporation gave up after realizing how toxic Earth had become. Forthright is the only live action character with a speaking role, the first in any Pixar film.
    • MacInTalk, the text-to-speech program for the Apple Macintosh, was used for the voice of Auto, the rogue autopilotartificial intelligence built into the ship. Unlike other robots in the film, Auto is not influenced by WALL-E, instead following directive A113, which is to prevent the Axiom and the humans from returning to Earth because of the toxicity, and he works to prevent anyone from deviating from it.
    • John Ratzenberger and Kathy Najimy as John and Mary, respectively. John and Mary both live on the Axiom and are so dependent on their personal video screens and automatic services that they are oblivious to their surroundings, for instance not noticing that the ship features a giant swimming pool. However, they are brought out of their trances after separate encounters with WALL-E, eventually meeting face-to-face for the first time.
    • Sigourney Weaver as the voice of the Axiom‍ '​s computer. Stanton joked about the role with Weaver, saying, "You realize you get to be 'Mother' now?"[7][8] referring to the name of the ship's computer in the film Alien, which also starred Weaver.[8]



    M-O just finishes cleaning the floor.
    Wally is fascinated.
    Impishly makes another mark.
    M-O compulsively cleans it. Can’t resist.
    M-O (bleeps): [Look, it stays clean. You got that?]
    Wally wipes the bottom of his tread on M-O’s face.
    M-O loses it.
    Scrubs his own face.
    Stanton wrote the screenplay to focus on the visuals
    and as a guide to what the sound effects needed to convey[9]
    Andrew Stanton conceived WALL-E during a lunch with fellow writers John Lasseter, Pete Docter, and Joe Ranft in 1994. Toy Story was nearing completion and the writers brainstormed ideas for their next projects – A Bug's Life, Monsters, Inc., and Finding Nemo– at this lunch. Stanton asked, "What if mankind had to leave Earth and somebody forgot to turn off the last robot?"[7] Having struggled for many years with making the characters in Toy Story appealing, Stanton found his simple Robinson Crusoe-esque idea of a lonely robot on a deserted planet strong.[10][11] Stanton made WALL-E a waste collector as the idea was instantly understandable, and because it was a low-status menial job that made him sympathetic.[12] Stanton also liked the imagery of stacked cubes of garbage.[13] He did not find the idea dark because having a planet covered in garbage was for him a childish imagining of disaster.[14]
    Stanton and Pete Docter developed the film under the title of Trash Planet for two months in 1995, but they did not know how to develop the story and Docter chose to direct Monsters, Inc. instead.[15][16] Stanton came up with the idea of WALL-E finding a plant, because his life as the sole inhabitant on a deserted world reminded Stanton of a plant growing among pavements.[17] Before they turned their attention to other projects, Stanton and Lasseter thought about having WALL-E fall in love, as it was the necessary progression away from loneliness.[14] Stanton started writing WALL-E again in 2002 while completing Finding Nemo.[18] Stanton formatted his script in a manner reminiscent of Dan O'Bannon's Alien. O'Bannon wrote his script in a manner Stanton found reminded him of haiku, where visual descriptions were done in continuous lines of a few words. Stanton wrote his robot dialogue conventionally, but placed them in brackets.[11] In late 2003, Stanton and a few others created a story reel of the first twenty minutes of the film. Lasseter and Steve Jobs were impressed and officially began development,[19] though Jobs stated he did not like the title, originally spelled "W.A.L.-E."[20]
    While the first act of WALL-E"fell out of the sky" for Stanton,[14] he had originally wanted aliens to plant EVE to explore Earth and the rest of the film was different. When WALL-E comes to the Axiom, he incites a Spartacus-style rebellion by the robots against the remnants of the human race, which were cruel alien Gels (completely devolved, gelatinous, boneless, legless, see-through, green creatures that resemble Jell-O). James Hicks, a physiologist, mentioned to Stanton the concept of atrophy and the effects prolonged weightlessness would have on humans living in space for an inordinately extended time period.[7][21][22] Therefore, this was the inspiration of the humans degenerating into the alien Gels,[23] and their ancestry would have been revealed in a Planet of the Apes-style ending.[24] The Gels also spoke a made-up gibberish language, but Stanton scrapped this idea because he thought it would be too complicated for the audience to understand and they could easily be driven off from the storyline.[25] The Gels had a royal family, who host a dance in a castle on a lake in the back of the ship, and the Axiom curled up into a ball when returning to Earth in this incarnation of the story.[25] Stanton decided this was too bizarre and unengaging, and conceived humanity as "big babies".[24] Stanton developed the metaphorical theme of the humans learning to stand again and "grow[ing] up",[24][26] wanting WALL-E and EVE's relationship to inspire humanity because he felt few films explore how utopian societies come to exist.[27] The process of depicting the descendants of humanity as the way they appear in the movie was slow. Stanton first decided to put a nose and ears on the Gels so the audience could recognize them. Eventually, fingers, legs, clothes, and other characteristics were added until they arrived at the concept of being fetus-like to allow the audience to see themselves in the characters.[25]
    In a later version of the film, Auto comes to the docking bay to retrieve EVE's plant. The film would have its first cutaway to the captain, but Stanton moved that as he found it too early to begin moving away from WALL-E's point-of-view. As an homage to Get Smart,[28] Auto takes the plant and goes into the bowels of the ship into a room resembling a brain where he watches videos of Buy n Large's scheme to clean up the Earth falling apart through the years. Stanton removed this to keep some mystery as to why the plant is taken from EVE. The captain appears to be unintelligent, but Stanton wanted him to just be unchallenged; otherwise he would have been unempathetic.[23] One example of how unintelligent the captain was depicted initially is that he was seen to wear his hat upside-down, only to fix it before he challenges Auto. In the finished film, he merely wears it casually atop his head, tightening it when he assumes real command of the Axiom.[25]
    Originally, EVE would have been electrocuted by Auto, and then be quickly saved from ejection at the hands of the WALL-A robots by WALL-E. He would have then revived her by replacing her power unit with a cigarette lighter he brought from Earth. Stanton reversed this following a 2007 test screening, as he wanted to show EVE replacing her directive of bringing the plant to the captain with repairing WALL-E, and it made WALL-E even more heroic if he held the holo-detector open despite being badly hurt. Stanton also moved the moment where WALL-E reveals his plant (which he had snatched from the self-destructing escape pod) from producing it from a closet to immediately after his escape, as it made EVE happier and gave them stronger motivation to dance around the ship.[23] Stanton felt half the audience at the screening believed the humans would be unable to cope with living on Earth and would have died out after the film's end. Jim Capobianco, director of the short film Your Friend the Rat, created an end credits animation that continued the story – and stylized in different artistic movements throughout history – to clarify an optimistic tone.[29]


    WALL-E was the most complex Pixar production since Monsters, Inc. because of the world and the history that had to be conveyed.[10] Whereas most Pixar films have up to 75,000 storyboards, WALL-E required 125,000.[30]Production designerRalph Eggleston wanted the lighting of the first act on Earth to be romantic, and that of the second act on the Axiom to be cold and sterile. During the third act, the romantic lighting is slowly introduced into the Axiom environment.[7] Pixar studied Chernobyl and the city of Sofia to create the ruined world; art director Anthony Christov was from Bulgaria and recalled Sofia used to have problems storing its garbage.[31][32] Eggleston bleached out the whites on Earth to make WALL-E feel vulnerable. The overexposed light makes the location look more vast. Because of the haziness, the cubes making up the towers of garbage had to be large, otherwise they would have lost shape (in turn, this helped save rendering time). The dull tans of Earth subtly become soft pinks and blues when EVE arrives. When WALL-E shows EVE all his collected items, all the lights he has collected light up to give an inviting atmosphere, like a Christmas tree. Eggleston tried to avoid the colors yellow and green so WALL-E – who was made yellow to emulate a tractor – would not blend into the deserted Earth, and to make the plant more prominent.[33]
    WALL-E holding a bra
    WALL-E finds a bra. Roger Deakins and Dennis Muren were consulted on realistic lighting including backgrounds that are less focused than foregrounds.
    Stanton also wanted the lighting to look realistic and evoke the science fiction films of his youth. He felt Pixar had captured the physics of being underwater with Finding Nemo, so for WALL-E he wanted to push that for air. It was while rewatching some of his favorite science fiction films he realized Pixar's films lacked the look of 70 mm film and its barrel distortion, lens flare and racking focus.[10] Producer Jim Morris invited Roger Deakins and Dennis Muren to advise on lighting and atmosphere. Muren spent several months with Pixar, while Deakins hosted one talk and was requested to stay on for another two weeks. Stanton said Muren's experience came from integrating computer animation into live-action settings, while Deakins helped them understand not to overly complicate their camerawork and lighting.[27] 1970s Panavision cameras were used to help the animators understand and replicate handheld imperfections like unfocused backgrounds in digital environments.[7] The first lighting test consisted of building a three-dimensional replica of WALL-E, filming it with a 70 mm camera, and then trying to replicate that in the computer.[34] Stanton cited the shallow lens work of Gus Van Sant's films as an influence, as it created intimacy in each close-up. Stanton chose angles for the virtual cameras that a live-action filmmaker would choose if filming on a set.[14]
    Stanton wanted the Axiom‍ '​s interior to resemble Shanghai and Dubai.[10] Eggleston studied 1960s NASA paintings and the original concept art for Tomorrowland for the Axiom, to reflect that era's sense of optimism.[7] Stanton remarked "We are all probably very similar in our backgrounds here [at Pixar] in that we all miss the Tomorrowland that was promised us from the heyday of Disneyland," and wanted a "jet pack" feel.[10] Pixar also studied the Disney Cruise Line and visited Las Vegas, which was helpful in understanding artificial lighting.[7] Eggleston based his Axiom designs on the futuristic architecture of Santiago Calatrava. Eggleston divided the inside of the ship into three sections; the rear's economy class has a basic gray concrete texture with graphics keeping to the red, blue and white of the BnL logo. The coach class with living/shopping spaces has 'S' shapes as people are always looking for "what's around the corner". Stanton intended to have many colorful signs, but he realized this would overwhelm the audience and went with Eggleston's original idea of a small number of larger signs. The premier class is a large Zen-like spa with colors limited to turquoise, cream and tan, and leads on to the captain's warm carpeted and wooded quarters and the sleek dark bridge.[33] In keeping with the artificial Axiom, camera movements were modeled after those of the steadicam.[35]
    The use of live action was a stepping stone for Pixar, as Stanton was planning to make John Carter of Mars his next project.[10] Storyboarder Derek Thompson noted introducing live action meant they had to make the rest of the film look even more realistic.[36] Eggleston added that if the historical humans had been animated and slightly caricaturized, then the audience would not have recognized how serious their devolution was.[33] Stanton cast Fred Willard as the historical Buy n Large CEO because "He's the most friendly and insincere car salesman I could think of."[24] The CEO says "stay the course," which Stanton used because he thought it was funny.[37]Industrial Light & Magic did the visual effects for these shots.[7]


    WALL-E went undeveloped during the 1990s partly because Stanton and Pixar were not confident enough yet to have a feature length film with a main character that behaved like Luxo Jr. or R2-D2.[11] Stanton explained there are two types of robots in cinema: "human[s] with metal skin", like the Tin Man, or "machine[s] with function" like Luxo and R2. He found the latter idea "powerful" because it allowed the audience to project personalities onto the characters, as they do with babies and pets: "You're compelled ... you almost can't stop yourself from finishing the sentence 'Oh, I think it likes me! I think it's hungry! I think it wants to go for a walk!'"[38] He added, "We wanted the audience to believe they were witnessing a machine that has come to life."[7] The animators visited recycling stations to study machinery, and also met robot designers, visited NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory to study robots, watched a recording of a Mars rover,[18] and borrowed a bomb detecting robot from the San Francisco Police Department. Simplicity was preferred in their performances as giving them too many movements would make them feel human.[7]
    Stanton wanted WALL-E to be a box and EVE to be like an egg.[39] WALL-E's eyes were inspired by a pair of binoculars Stanton was given when watching the Oakland Athletics play against the Boston Red Sox. He "missed the entire inning" because he was distracted by them.[40] The director was reminded of Buster Keaton and decided the robot would not need a nose or mouth.[41] Stanton added a zoom lens to make WALL-E more sympathetic.[41]Ralph Eggleston noted this feature gave the animators more to work with and gave the robot a childlike quality.[33] Pixar's studies of trash compactors during their visits to recycling stations inspired his body.[7] His tank treads were inspired by a wheelchair someone had developed that used treads instead of wheels.[39] The animators wanted him to have elbows, but realized this was unrealistic because he is only designed to pull garbage into his body.[7] His arms also looked flimsy when they did a test of him waving.[39] Animation director Angus MacLane suggested they attach his arms to a track on the sides of his body to move them around, based on the inkjet printers his father designed. This arm design contributed to creating the character's posture, so if they wanted him to be nervous, they would lower them.[42] Stanton was unaware of the similarities between WALL-E and Johnny 5 from Short Circuit until others pointed it out to him.[11]
    From left to right, characters Auto, the captain, and EVE are pictured in a room within the Axiom ship.
    Auto, the captain and EVE
    Stanton wanted EVE to be at the higher end of technology, and asked iPod designer Jonathan Ive to inspect her design. He was very impressed.[10] Her eyes are modelled on Lite-Brite toys,[41] but Pixar chose not to make them overly expressive as it would be too easy to have her eyes turn into hearts to express love or something similar.[39] Her limited design meant the animators had to treat her like a drawing, relying on posing her body to express emotion.[7] They also found her similar to a manatee or a narwhal because her floating body resembled an underwater creature.[39] Auto was a conscious homage to HAL 9000 from 2001: A Space Odyssey, and the usage of Also sprach Zarathustra for the showdown between the captain and Auto furthers that.[11][not in citation given] The manner in which he hangs from a wall gives him a threatening feel, like a spider.[43] Originally, Auto was designed entirely differently, resembling EVE, but masculine and authoritative; the Steward robots were also more aggressive Patrol-bots.[23] The majority of the robot cast were formed with the Build-a-bot program, where different heads, arms and treads were combined together in over a hundred variations.[7] The humans were modelled on sea lions due to their blubbery bodies,[33] as well as babies. The filmmakers noticed baby fat is a lot tighter than adult fat and copied that texture for the film's humans.[44]
    To animate their robots, the film's story crew and animation crew watched a Keaton and a Charlie Chaplin film every day for almost a year, and occasionally a Harold Lloyd picture.[11] Afterwards, the filmmakers knew all emotions could be conveyed silently. Stanton cited Keaton's "great stone face" as giving them perseverance in animating a character with an unchanging expression.[41] As he rewatched these, Stanton felt that filmmakers – since the advent of sound – relied on dialogue too much to convey exposition.[11] The filmmakers dubbed the cockroach WALL-E keeps as a pet "Hal", in reference to silent film producer Hal Roach (as well as being an additional reference to HAL 9000).[7] They also watched 2001: A Space Odyssey, The Black Stallion and Never Cry Wolf, films that had sound but were not reliant on dialogue.[36] Stanton acknowledged Silent Running as an influence because its silent robots were a forerunner to the likes of R2-D2,[27] and that the "hopeless romantic"Woody Allen also inspired WALL-E.[15]


    Producer Jim Morris recommended Ben Burtt as sound designer for WALL-E because Stanton kept using R2-D2 as the benchmark for the robots.[28] Burtt had completed Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith and told his wife he would no longer work on films with robots, but found WALL-E and its substitution of voices with sound "fresh and exciting".[7] He recorded 2500 sounds for the film, which was twice the average number for a Star Wars film,[18] and a record in his career.[7] Burtt began work in 2005,[45] and experimented with filtering his voice for two years.[46] Burtt described the robot voices as "like a toddler [...] universal language of intonation. 'Oh', 'Hm?', 'Huh!', you know?"[47]
    During production Burtt had the opportunity to look at the items used by Jimmy MacDonald, Disney's in-house sound designer for many of their classic films. Burtt used many of MacDonald's items on WALL-E. Because Burtt was not simply adding sound effects in post-production, the animators were always evaluating his new creations and ideas, which Burtt found an unusual experience.[48] He worked in sync with the animators, returning their animation after adding the sounds to give them more ideas.[7] Burtt would choose scientifically accurate sounds for each character, but if he could not find one that worked, he would choose a dramatic if unrealistic noise.[48] Burtt would find hundreds of sounds by looking at concept art of characters, before he and Stanton pared it down to a distinct few for each robot.[10]
    Burtt saw a hand-cranked electrical generator while watching Island in the Sky, and bought an identical, unpacked device from 1950 on eBay to use for WALL-E moving around.[49] Burtt also used an automobile self starter for when WALL-E goes fast,[48] and the sound of cars being wrecked at a demolition derby provided for WALL-E's compressing trash in his body.[50] The Macintosh computer chime was used to signify when WALL-E has fully recharged his battery. For EVE, Burtt wanted her humming to have a musical quality.[48] Burtt was only able to provide neutral or masculine voices, so Pixar employee Elissa Knight was asked to provide her voice for Burtt to electronically modify. Stanton deemed the sound effect good enough to properly cast her in the role.[37] Burtt recorded a flying 10-foot-long (3.0 m) radio-controlled jet plane for EVE's flying,[7] and for her plasma cannon, Burtt hit a slinky hung from a ladder with a timpani stick. He described it as a "cousin" to the blaster noise from Star Wars.[51]
    MacInTalk was used because Stanton "wanted Auto to be the epitome of a robot, cold, zeros & ones, calculating, and soulless [and] Stephen Hawking's kind of voice I thought was perfect."[27] Additional sounds for the character were meant to give him a clockwork feel, to show he is always thinking and calculating.[48]
    Burtt had visited Niagara Falls in 1987 and used his recordings from his trip for the sounds of wind.[50] He ran around a hall with a canvas bag up to record the sandstorm though.[7] For the scene where WALL-E runs from falling shopping carts, Burtt and his daughter went to a supermarket and placed a recorder in their cart. They crashed it around the parking lot and then let it tumble down a hill.[52] To create Hal (WALL-E's pet cockroach)'s skittering, he recorded the clicking caused by taking apart and reassembling handcuffs.[7]


    Thomas Newman recollaborated with Stanton on WALL-E since the two got along well on Nemo, which gave Newman the Annie Award for Best Music in an Animated Feature. He began writing the score in 2005, in the hope that starting this task early would make him more involved with the finished film. But, Newman remarked that animation is so dependent on scheduling he should have begun work earlier on when Stanton and Reardon were writing the script. EVE's theme was arranged for the first time in October 2007. Her theme when played as she first flies around Earth originally used more orchestral elements, and Newman was encouraged to make it sound more feminine.[53] Newman said Stanton had thought up many ideas for how he wanted the music to sound, and he generally followed them as he found scoring a partially silent film difficult. Stanton wanted the whole score to be orchestral, but Newman felt limited by this idea especially in scenes aboard the Axiom, and used electronics too.[54]
    WALL-E watching a clip from Hello, Dolly!
    A live-action clip of the song "It Only Takes a Moment" from Hello, Dolly!, which inspires WALL-E to hold hands with EVE
    Stanton originally wanted to juxtapose the opening shots of space with 1930s French swing music, but he saw The Triplets of Belleville (2003) and did not want to appear as if he were copying it. Stanton then thought about the song "Put On Your Sunday Clothes" from Hello, Dolly!, since he had portrayed the sidekick Barnaby Tucker in a 1980 high school production.[55] Stanton found that the song was about two naive young men looking for love, which was similar to WALL-E's own hope for companionship. Jim Reardon suggested WALL-E find the film on video, and Stanton included "It Only Takes a Moment" and the clip of the actors holding hands, because he wanted a visual way to show how WALL-E understands love and conveys it to EVE. Hello Dolly! composer Jerry Herman allowed the songs to be used without knowing what for; when he saw the film, he found its incorporation into the story "genius".[56] Coincidentally, Newman's uncle Lionel worked on Hello, Dolly![7]
    Newman travelled to London to compose the end credits song "Down to Earth" with Peter Gabriel, who was one of Stanton's favorite musicians. Afterwards, Newman rescored some of the film to include the song's composition, so it would not sound intrusive when played.[7]Louis Armstrong's rendition of "La Vie en rose" was used for a montage where WALL-E does not get EVE's attention on Earth. The script also specified using Bing Crosby's "Stardust" for when the two robots dance around the Axiom,[9] but Newman asked if he could score the scene himself. A similar switch occurred for the sequence in which WALL-E attempts to wake EVE up through various means; originally, the montage would play with the instrumental version of "Raindrops Keep Fallin' on My Head", but Newman wanted to challenge himself and scored an original piece for the sequence.[57]


    This movie is widely recognized as a critique on society. It brings up real issues that the world, and especially densely populated areas, are dealing with today and even more so in the future. Katherine Ellison asserts that “Americans produce nearly 400 million tons of solid waste per year but recycle less than a third of it, according to a recent Columbia University study.” Landfills are filling up so quickly that the UK may run out of landfill space by the year 2017.[58]

    Environment and waste

    Because WALL-E overtly critiques consumerism, it also critiques Disney's production values and aesthetic, without being too obvious.[6] In the DVD commentary, Stanton said that he has been asked if it was his intention to make a movie about consumerism. His answer was it was not; it was a way to answer the question of how would the Earth get to the state where one robot would be left to continue the cleanup by itself.
    In "WALL-E: from environmental adaption to sentimental nostalgia," Robin Murray and Joseph Heuman explain the important theme of nostalgia in this film. Nostalgia is clearly represented by human artifacts, left behind, that WALL-E collects and cherishes, i.e. Zippo lighters, hubcaps, and plastic sporks. These modern items that we use out of necessity, are made sentimental through the lens of the bleak future of Earth. Nostalgia is also expressed through the musical score, as the film opens with a camera shot of outer space that slowly zooms in to a waste filled Earth while playing "Put on Your Sunday Clothes," reflecting on simpler and happier times in human history. This film also expresses nostalgia through the longing of nature and the natural world, as it is the sight and feeling of soil, and the plant brought back to the space ship by EVE, that make the captain decide it is time for humans to move back to Earth. WALL-E expresses nostalgia also, by reflecting on romantic themes of older Disney and silent films.[6]
    Stanton describes the theme of the film as "irrational love defeats life's programming":[24]
    I realized the point I was trying to push with these two programmed robots was the desire for them to try and figure out what the point of living was ... It took these really irrational acts of love to sort of discover them against how they were built ... I realized that that's a perfect metaphor for real life. We all fall into our habits, our routines and our ruts, consciously or unconsciously to avoid living. To avoid having to do the messy part. To avoid having relationships with other people or dealing with the person next to us. That's why we can all get on our cell phones and not have to deal with one another. I thought, 'That's a perfect amplification of the whole point of the movie.' I wanted to run with science in a way that would sort of logically project that.[24]


    Stanton noted many commentators placed emphasis on the environmental aspect of humanity's complacency in the film, because "that disconnection is going to be the cause, indirectly, of anything that happens in life that's bad for humanity or the planet".[59] Stanton said that by taking away effort to work, the robots also take away humanity's need to put effort into relationships.[43] Christian journalist Rod Dreher saw technology as the complicated villain of the film. The humans' artificial lifestyle on the Axiom has separated them from nature, making them "slaves of both technology and their own base appetites, and have lost what makes them human". Dreher contrasted the hardworking, dirt covered WALL-E with the sleek clean robots on the ship. However, it is the humans and not the robots who make themselves redundant, and during the end credits humans and robots are shown working alongside each other to renew the Earth. "WALL-E is not a Luddite film," he said. "It doesn't demonize technology. It only argues that technology is properly used to help humans cultivate their true nature – that it must be subordinate to human flourishing, and help move that along."[60]

    The Axiom and EVE have been compared to Noah's Ark and the dove in that story.


    Stanton, who is a Christian,[12] named EVE after the Biblical character because WALL-E's loneliness reminded him of Adam, before God created his wife.[61] Dreher noted EVE's biblical namesake and saw her directive as an inversion of that story; EVE uses the plant to tell humanity to return to Earth and move away from the "false god" of BnL and the lazy lifestyle it offers. Dreher also noted this departure from classical Christian viewpoints, where Adam is cursed to labor, in that WALL-E argues hard work is what makes humans human. Dreher emphasized the false god parallels to BnL in a scene where a robot teaches infants "B is for Buy n Large, your very best friend", which he compared to modern corporations such as McDonald's creating brand loyalty in children.[60] Megan Basham of World magazine felt the film criticizes the pursuit of leisure, whereas WALL-E in his stewardship learns to truly appreciate God's creation.[12]
    During writing, a Pixar employee noted to Jim Reardon that EVE was reminiscent of the dove with the olive branch from the story of Noah's Ark, and the story was reworked with EVE finding a plant to return humanity from its voyage.[62] WALL-E himself has been compared to Prometheus,[28]Sisyphus,[60] and Butades: in an essay discussing WALL-E as representative of the artistic strive of Pixar itself, Hrag Vartanian compared WALL-E to Butades in a scene where the robot expresses his love for EVE by making a sculpture of her from spare parts. "The Ancient Greek tradition associates the birth of art with a Corinthian maiden who longing to preserve her lover’s shadow traces it on the wall before he departed for war. The myth reminds us that art was born out of longing and often means more for the creator than the muse. In the same way Stanton and his Pixar team have told us a deeply personal story about their love of cinema and their vision for animation through the prism of all types of relationships."[63]

    0 0

    About False Pretenses 

    A stolen election. Domestic terrorism. Extortion. Once in power, and consumed by greed, Pete Reeves will stop at nothing to have more of both. It's a non-stop race around the world to prevent the President from going to war to further his own ambitions. Politics takes one unexpected turn after another in "False Pretenses," the new political thriller by Scott Kramer.

    Purchase False Pretenses at Amazon

    Book Information

    Author: Scott R. Kramer
    Publisher: Eagle Ridge Press
    Genre: Political Thriller
    #of Pages: 360
    Publication Date: April, 2015
    Amazon Price: Kindle: $5.99

    Amazon Price: Paperback: $14.95

    False Pretenses Book Excerpt

    “Well, it all comes down to tonight,” said the anchorman at the country’s #1 rated TV network. “After more than a year of campaigning, criss-crossing the country, kissing babies and shaking hands – this is it.

    “The polls are open all around the country, and getting ready to close on the East Coast. The final polls showed the candidates in a dead heat as late as last night. With the margin of error, it could either way. Tell, George, how do you think it’s going to end?”

    “Well, Brian, it’s really too hard to say. If the minority vote turns out, that will favor Lesser. If they don’t, it benefits Reeves.

    “I have a feeling that this is going to go down to the wire, with much of America going to sleep tonight with knowing who will be their next President.”

    “I have to agree with you. We’re in for a long night.” 

    Author Scott R. Kramer
    About Scott R. Kramer

    Scott Kramer is a former investment advisor and now runs a manufacturing company. He grew up in New Jersey and has a Bachelors Degree and Masters Degree, both in finance. He lives in Los Angeles with his wife and three children. False Pretensesis his debut political thriller novel.

    Follow Scott on twitter: @scottrkramer

     If you would like to promote your book with a virtual book tour and social media services click here

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  • 07/15/15--20:40: About shelley Pearsall
  • Shelley Pearsall grew up in a suburb of Cleveland, Ohio called Parma which was known for its pink flamingo lawn ornaments and white socks. Her family did not own a pink flamingo lawn ornament or wear white socks, but they did have an unusual daughter who liked to sit in her bedroom closet and write stories.
    Most of Shelley’s first stories were only a few pages long. They were handwritten with construction paper covers and stapled bindings. As Shelley got older, the stories got longer. She wrote mysteries, adventure stories, historical stories – and a LOT of unfinished stories.
    Since she’d never met any professional authors, Shelley didn’t know how to become one. (This is a big reason why she visits schools to meet with young writers today!) So, she kept on writing and tried out a lot of other careers instead. Her oddest jobs included working in a shoemaker shop in Colonial Williamsburg and being a recycling character called “Tin Can Tilly.”
    Over the past twenty years, Shelley has been a classroom teacher in public schools, as well as working in the education departments of several parks and history museums. She has a B.A. from The College of Wooster and M.Ed. from John Carroll University.
    Shelley’s first book, Trouble Don't Last, was published in 2002 and received the Scott O’Dell Award for Historical Fiction. Her third novel, All of the Above, was an ALA Notable book. Her books often appear on state reading award lists and “best of” lists.
    Today, Shelley lives with her husband Mike and cat Charlie in Silver Lake, Ohio which used to be an amusement park a hundred or so years ago (see cool postcards!). When she isn’t working on a book, Shelley likes to read, swim, play laser tag with her cat, and imagine where she’d put a pink flamingo if she had one.

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  • 07/23/15--09:40: Owasso, Oklahoma

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Owasso, Oklahoma
    Shops in Owasso
    Shops in Owasso
    Nickname(s): "The City Without Limits"
    Location of within Tulsa County, and the state of Oklahoma
    Location of within Tulsa County, and the state of Oklahoma
    Owasso, Oklahoma is located in USA
    Owasso, Oklahoma
    Owasso, Oklahoma
    Location in the United States
    Coordinates: 36°17′25″N95°49′43″WCoordinates: 36°17′25″N95°49′43″W
    Country United States
    State Oklahoma
    Counties Tulsa, Rogers
    Incorporated 1904 (town in Indian Territory); 1972 (city chartered in Oklahoma)[1]
     • Mayor Jeri Moberly
     • Total 16.31 sq mi (42.24 km2)
     • Land 16.29 sq mi (42.19 km2)
     • Water 0.02 sq mi (0.05 km2)
    Elevation 610 ft (186 m)
    Population (2013)
     • Total 32,472
     • Density 1,775.3/sq mi (712.2/km2)
    Time zone Central (UTC-6)
     • Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)
    ZIP codes 74055, 74073, 74021
    Area code(s) 539/918
    FIPS code 40-56650[2]
    GNIS feature ID 1096358[3]
    Owasso is a city in Rogers and Tulsa counties in the U.S. state of Oklahoma, and a northern suburb of Tulsa. The population was 28,915 at the 2010 census.[4] Originally settled in 1881 in Indian Territory, the town incorporated in 1904 just prior to Oklahoma statehood and was chartered as a city in 1972.
    Scenes in The Outsiders film were shot in Owasso.


    Owasso began as a settlement in 1881, located in the Cooweescoowee District of the Cherokee Nation in Indian Territory, near what is now 66th Street North and North 129th East Ave. It was called Elm Creek, and was named for Elm Creek, a tributary of Bird Creek. The first settler was H.T. (Tole) Richardson. In June 1893, plans began for a rail line to be extended south from Bartlesville to the cattle ranches in the vicinity of Bird Creek. At that time there were already several residences, a blacksmith shop, and a general store in the Elm Creek Settlement. Preston Ballard, owner of the general store, established a post office in the general store on February 10, 1898 and was appointed the first postmaster. The Joseph T. Barnes family moved to the settlement in 1897. Joseph and Luther Barnes bought the blacksmith shop in 1898.[5] The first gas station was open in 1902 by Donovan Ranta.
    In 1897, the Kansas, Oklahoma Central & Southwestern Railway Company acquired right-of-way approximately 3 miles (4.8 km) northwest of the Elm Creek Settlement, dammed a natural spring to form a lake as a water supply for the rail line, & built a depot about a mile south of the lake. The depot was torn down in 1942. Late in 1898, Joseph & Luther Barnes moved their blacksmith shop to the new community. The shop became a temporary home for the Joseph Barnes family. It was the first residence officially moved to the new depot community. During 1898, many of the residents and businesses moved from the Elm Creek Settlement to the new community. Preston Ballard moved his post office and general store during that time. The new community became known as Elm Creek, since the post office retained its name.
    The railroad completed its line in 1899. Its parent company, the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway Company, took over the line and property. The first train came into Elm Creek on November 1, 1899. As the land around the end of this railroad developed, the Osage Indian word Owasso, meaning “the end of the trail” or “turn around”,[1] was adopted to identify the area because the rail line ended in a turnaround “Y” near the depot. The name of the Elm Creek post office was officially changed to Owasso on January 24, 1900. The rail line was not extended into Tulsa until 1905.[5]
    A plat of the original townsite of Owasso, Cherokee Nation, I.T. was signed by the Secretary of the Interior on March 26, 1904, in connection with the town’s incorporation. That plat shows three streets running north and south and eight streets running east and west. The north/south streets were named Oklahoma, Kansas & Missouri, and the east/west streets north of what is now Broadway were named for Union generals, while the east/west streets to the south were named for Confederate generals. These names were later changed; east/west streets are now identified by street numbers, and north/south streets are now named after trees. The original street names were changed to their present names around 1960.[5]
    By the time Oklahoma became a state on November 16, 1907, Owasso had a population of 379 within the town limits. The first newspaper was The Owasso Ledger, and was first published on August 7, 1903 by U. P. Wardrip. The subscription price was $1.00 per year, paid in advance. The Pioneer Telephone and Telegraph Company was granted a franchise on February 6, 1905 for the town’s first telephone exchange. Until the first water tower was erected in 1924, with Spavinaw as the water source, water came into town in barrels from the Owasso Lake and sold for $0.50 a barrel.
    Owasso incorporated as a city on September 28, 1972.[1][5]


    Owasso is a northern suburb of Tulsa, Oklahoma, located in the northeastern corner of Oklahoma known as "Green Country" for its green vegetation, hills and lakes, which contrast the drier Great Plains region of central and western Oklahoma. The geographic coordinates of the city of Owasso are 36°17′25″N95°49′43″W (36.290373, -95.828640).[6] According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 16.31 square miles (42.2 km2), 99.9% of which is land, the remainder being water.


    Owasso lies in Tornado Alley and has a temperate climate of the humid subtropical variety (KöppenCfa) with a yearly average temperature of 59 °F (15 °C) and an average precipitation of 39.5 inches (1,000 mm).[7]


    Historical population
    Census Pop.
    1910 373
    1920 379
    1930 416
    1940 371
    1950 431
    1960 2,032
    1970 3,491
    1980 6,149
    1990 11,151
    2000 18,502
    2010 28,915
    Est. 2014 33,773 [8] 16.8%
    As of the census[2] of 2010, there were 28,915 people, 10,689 households, and 7,807 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,775.3 people per square mile (712.2/km²). There were 7,004 housing units at an average density of 698.2 per square mile (269.6/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 79.4% White, 2.8% Black, 6.8% Native American, 1.8% Asian (0.7% Hmong, 0.3% Chinese, 0.3% Indian), 0.2% Pacific Islander, 3.0% from other races, and 3.98% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.7% of the population.[14][15]
    There were 10,689 households out of which 46.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.3% were married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 22.4% were non-families. 19.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.81 and the average family size was 3.24.
    In the city the population was spread out with 33.1% under the age of 18, 7.6% from 18 to 24, 33.7% from 25 to 44, 17.2% from 45 to 64, and 8.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 93.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.5 males.
    The median income for a household in the city was $66,572, and the median income for a family was $76,044. The per capita income for the city was $27,634. About 7.6% of the population were below the poverty line.[16][17] Of the city's population over the age of 25, 30.8% holds a bachelor's degree or higher.
    Current city data shows the population has grown to 39,517 and is expected to grow another 19% by 2014. More than 80% of the households in Owasso are families, and more Owasso residents have a post-secondary education than in the Tulsa metro area. Owasso is one of the fastest growing cities in the State of Oklahoma. According to the city's data, the average household income in Owasso is $80,877.[18]


    Owasso's newspapers, the Owasso Reporter and the Owasso Progress, are both published weekly. Until 2015, The Reporter was owned by Community Publishers, a newspaper and Internet publisher and commercial printer that serves Oklahoma, Missouri, and Arkansas. On Tuesday, April 21, 2015, The Tulsa World announced that its parent company BH Media, a division of Berkshire Hathaway, the Omaha-based investment holding company led by billionaire Warren Buffett had purchased several suburban newspapers, including the Owasso Reporter.[19][20]
    The Progress is owned by Community Newspaper Holdings.


    Owasso became a bedroom community in the 1950s for Tulsa, which was only 12 miles (19 km) away. As Tulsa expanded, so did industry around Owasso, stimulating further growth. Industrial development proceeded through the 1980s and 1990s. Factories included American Airlines, with nine thousand employees, Nordam Group, with seventeen hundred, and Whirlpool, with twelve hundred and MCI WorldCom with twenty-two hundred.[5]


    Owasso has a council-manager form of government.[5]

    Notable people

    Cultural references

    The webcomic Penny Arcade mentions Owasso when one of the two main characters, Tycho Brahe, confesses that he once killed an old woman and buried her there.[24]
    The movie The Outsiders has the old Owasso High School (currently the Owasso 7th Grade Center) in the background. Another scene shows downtown Owasso (Main Street) in the background.
    The movie Midnight Runaround features a scene shot in a barn on the west side of Owasso. The movie refers to the location as Sperry, Oklahoma which actually sits further west of Owasso.
    The nonfictional novel War Wagon by Patrick Hamblin references Bird Creek in Owasso, Oklahoma as the location of a stash of gold coins hidden by the Confederate Army during a retreat. Original documentation mentions a rock outcropping over the creek but the actual treasure has yet to be discovered. In 1984 a single coin was found that renewed interest in this legend.

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